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Napjainkban az alvászavarokat is a jelentős krónikus betegségek közé sorolhatjuk, tekintettel hosszú távú élettani és pszichoszociális következményeikre, életminőségre gyakorolt hatásukra. A nyugtalan láb szindróma 5–10%-ban fordul elő a felnőtt lakosság körében. Gyakori, mégis aluldiagnosztizált kórkép, amelynek a következményei nem elhanyagolhatóak. A betegek túlnyomó többsége insomniában szenved, amelynek következtében romlik nappali teljesítményük, életminőségük. Bár a nyugtalan láb szindróma az alvászavarok közé tartozik, nem csak az alvás minőségét befolyásolja. A kellemetlen szenzoros tünetek a betegek mindennapi életére is hatással vannak. Az utóbbi időben vált ismertté, hogy a nyugtalan láb szindróma a népegészségügyi szempontból vezető helyen álló cardiovascularis betegségekkel is kapcsolatot mutat. Orv. Hetil., 2011, 152, 259–266.

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Abstract

The Mid-Hungarian Zone is a WSW-ENE trending composite structural unit in the basement of the Pannonian Basin that is made up of displaced crustal fragments (terranes) of South Alpine and Dinaridic origin. In the early stage of the Alpine evolution these fragments were located in various sectors of the NW Neotethys region, representing different paleogeographic settings from passive margin through continental slope to oceanic basement. Middle to Late Jurassic closure of the Neotethys led to the development of a suture zone made up of subduction-related complexes that can be followed all along the strike of the Dinarides. During the Cretaceous compressional stages, nappe stacks were formed from the accretionary complex and the fragments of the previously disrupted passive margin. Eastward extrusion (escape) of the ALCAPA Mega-unit during the Oligocene to Early Miocene led to large-scale displacement of fragments of this nappe stack, transporting them to their present-day position, and resulted in dispersal of the northwestern segment of the suture zone. The paper summarizes the basic characteristics of the dislocated blocks, evaluates their relationships and determines their original setting.

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The findings of ultrasonography of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of 265 dogs with GI disorders were analysed retrospectively. The sonographic changes associated with various inflammatory and neoplastic conditions and mechanical obstruction of the GI system were recorded and discussed. Sonographic alterations of the pancreas and the tissues adjacent to the GI tract were also included in the study. Ultrasonographic alterations of the GI tract were classified into three main categories: thickening of the GI wall, changes in peristalsis and dilation of the lumen. Localised thickening of the GI wall with disruption of its structure was caused by both neoplastic diseases and by inflammatory disorders. However, diffuse thickening with retained wall structure was generally associated with inflammatory diseases. The criteria previously established for the ultrasonographic diagnosis of intestinal obstruction were successfully applied to a large number of GI disorders. Pancreatitis was most often associated with hyperechoic mesentery and hypoechoic pancreas mass, but similar alterations were encountered in some cases of gastric or duodenal ulceration. Except in cases of invaginations and intestinal obstructions, the observed ultrasonographic changes were not specific enough for a definitive diagnosis. Nevertheless, ultrasonography proved to be a valuable technique in the diagnostic process of GI disorders of the dog.

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The effects of gastric feeding on intestinal motility are still under debate. In order to better define the character of the contractile activity in fed and fasting states, we used the impedance technique to investigate the duodenal time periods of the migrating motor complex (MMC) and the interdigestive phases I-III. During general anaesthesia, pigs (32-40 kg) were instrumented with a luminal impedance catheter into the proximal duodenum in fasting (n = 6) and fed states (n = 6, Muskator®, 400 g, Muskator-Werk, Düsseldorf, Germany). Duodenal motility was recorded continuously for 4 h, which made it possible to determine the length of interdigestive phases I-III and the MMC cycle. Differences between the groups were compared by using the Wilcoxon Rank-Sum Test. Feeding patterns were only found in pigs in the fed state. The subsequent MMC cycle length was shortened by 34% (p = 0.007) which was due to a shortened phase I of the MMC cycle (p = 0.014). While phase II seemed to be unaffected, phase III was prolonged by 31% after feeding had occurred (p = 0.012). The present study suggests that a standard maintenance diet disrupts the spontaneous MMC cycles by turning into fed pattern with the subsequent MMC cycle length being shortened. This was mainly due to a shortened phase I.

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Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
Authors: Petra Havas, Szilárd Kun, Izabell Perger-Mészáros, Judit M. Rezessy-Szabó, and Quang D. Nguyen

Growth and metabolic activity of several new, human origin isolates of Bifidobacterium strains were investigated. All tested bifidobacteria strains were grown well on the native soymilk medium without any additional nutrients. The fermentation processes cultured with initial cell concentrations in 105–107 cfu/ml resulted in 108 cfu/ml after 8–12 h of incubation in soymilk, and were kept viable up to the end of fermentation (48 h). Volumetric productivities of B. bifidum B3.2, B. bifidum B7.1 and B. breve B9.14 were 1.6×1010 cfu/L.h, 4.5×1010 cfu/L.h and 7.6×109 cfu/L.h, respectively, whereas these values of B. lactis Bb-12 and B. longum Bb-46 probiotic strains were 2.7×109 cfu/L.h and 1.0×1010 cfu/L.h. The α-galactosidase activities were also detected in the intracellular fraction of the disrupted cells. Productions of lactic and acetic acids were in the range of 23–60 mmol/L and 2.4–5.6 mmol/L, respectively. Molar ratios of acetate to lactate in all tested strains varied from 0.05–0.1 that are very promising for further technological development of probiotic fermented soy-based food products.

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors: Béla Gyetvai, Ákos Jerzsele, Erzsébet Pászti-Gere, Gábor Nagy, and Péter Gálfi

Gentamicin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic widely used in combination with dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) in topical drug formulations. It is not known, however, whether DMSO can enhance the permeation of gentamicin through biological membranes, leading to oto- and nephrotoxic side effects. A simple and reliable high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method was applied for the quantitative determination of gentamicin collected from the apical and basolateral compartments of the porcine intestinal epithelial cell line IPEC-J2 cell monolayer using fluorometric derivatisation of the analyte with fluorenylmethyloxycarbonyl chloride (FMOC) prior to chromatographic run in the presence and absence of 1% DMSO. The lack of change in transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) demonstrated that gentamicin and 1% DMSO did not affect IPEC-J2 cell monolayer integrity via the disruption of cell membranes. Chromatographic data also ascertained that gentamicin penetration across the cell monolayer even in the presence of 1% DMSO was negligible at 6 h after the beginning of apical gentamicin administration. This study further indicates that the addition of this organic solvent does not increase the incidence of toxic effects related to gentamicin permeation.

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Abstract  

Calorimetric measurements of adsorption for the surfactant (benzyldimethyldodecylammonium bromide) and its polar head-group (benzyltrimethylammonium bromide) from aqueous solutions on two different silica surfaces (hydrophilic and hydrophobic one) allow a more detailed picture of the subsequent stages of the adsorption process to be drawn. It is possible to determine more precisely a boundary between the adsorption of individual molecules and the formation of surface aggregates. The local disruption of the structure of the interfacial water molecules by surfactant cations gives an endothermic contribution to the total enthalpy of displacement. This contribution depends on the length of alkyl chain as well as on the type and the origin of solid surface.

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This study examines the antibacterial properties of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX), Listerine®, and high purity chlorine dioxide (Solumium, ClO2) on selected common oral pathogen microorganisms and on dental biofilm in vitro. Antimicrobial activity of oral antiseptics was compared to the gold standard phenol. We investigated Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Enterococcus faecalis, Veillonella alcalescens, Eikenella corrodens, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and Candida albicans as some important representatives of the oral pathogens. Furthermore, we collected dental plaque from the upper first molars of healthy young students. Massive biofilm was formed in vitro and its reduction was measured after treating it with mouthrinses: CHX, Listerine® or hyper pure ClO2. Their biofilm disrupting effect was measured after dissolving the crystal violet stain from biofilm by photometer. The results have showed that hyper pure ClO2 solution is more effective than other currently used disinfectants in case of aerobic bacteria and Candida yeast. In case of anaerobes its efficiency is similar to CHX solution. The biofilm dissolving effect of hyper pure ClO2 is significantly stronger compared to CHX and Listerine® after 5 min treatment. In conclusion, hyper pure ClO2 has a potent disinfectant efficacy on oral pathogenic microorganisms and a powerful biofilm dissolving effect compared to the current antiseptics, therefore high purity ClO2 may be a new promising preventive and therapeutic adjuvant in home oral care and in dental or oral surgery practice.

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Abstract  

We have investigated effects of shear flow on the structure of lamellar phase in hepta(oxyethylene glycol)—n—hexadecylether—water system using small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) under shear flow at the shear rates (

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) from 10–3 s–1 to 50 s–1. In the range
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=10–2 ~1 s–1, significant changes have been observed in both intensity and position of the reflection peak. Small-angle X-ray scattering without shear has been also measured at various concentrations and temperatures. It has been suggested from these results that the shear flow causes contraction of lamellar domains and formation of a new domain composed of disrupted bilayers which grows rapidly with increasing shear rate and reconstructs original microstructures.

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A kritikus állapotú beteg tartósan, gyakran heteken át nem képes önállóan táplálkozni. Az akut szakaszban súlyos fehérje-energia malnutritio alakul ki, ami progresszív izomgyengeséggel jár és hosszabb lélegeztetési, intenzív osztályos és kórházi tartózkodást jelent. A metabolikus folyamatok ismeretében meg kell határozni az energia- és fehérjebevitel célértékeit, ellenőrizni kell ezek teljesülését. Az enteralis táplálás elsődlegesen javasolt, az emésztőrendszer toleranciazavara miatt azonban gyakran parenteralis kiegészítés szükséges. Úgy tűnik azonban, nincs előnye a korai, egy héten belül kezdett parenteralis kiegészítésnek. Szakértői vélemények szerint a fehérjecélérték növelése mérsékelheti az izomvesztést. Ugyancsak további vizsgálatok szükségesek az immunnutríció, a zsírsavak és a mikrotápanyagok hatására vonatkozóan. Orv. Hetil., 2014, 155(51), 2048–2053.

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