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Characterizing in situ starch gelatinization

Thermal and dynamic mechanical analysis of durum wheat dough

Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: C. Marchisano, L. Gennaro, M. Sepe, and P. Masi

Data obtained by dynamic mechanical analysis and DSC analysis of durum wheat dough are presented and discussed. Doughs with water contents ranging from 45 to 55% (w/w) were subjected to sinusoidal shearing by means of a dynamic mechanical spectrometer (Rheometrics, RFS2) equipped with parallel plate geometry, 0.1 strain amplitude and 1 rad/min frequency. The tests were carried on in temperature sweep mode at a heating rate of 2°C min−1.

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Dietary fiber content of bulgurs prepared from different wheat varieties was investigated. Grains of 29 Turkish wheat cultivars and advanced breeding lines (23 of durum and 6 of common wheat) were used in this study. The average values for ADF and NDF (+amylase) contents of investigated durum wheats were 3.4% and 9.9%, respectively and the corresponding values of common wheats were 3.4% and 11.5%. In this study, the average values for ADF and NDF (+amylase) contents of bulgurs made of durum wheats were found to be 5.4% and 10.3%, respectively and the corresponding values of bulgurs made of common wheats were 5.8% and 11.7%. The minimum and maximum values for ADF and NDF (+amylase) contents of bulgurs made of durum wheats were found to be 4.1%-6.8% and 7.9%-11.8%, respectively and the corresponding values of bulgurs made of common wheats were 5.1%-6.4 and 10.6%-12.4%. The processing of wheat into bulgur generally increased the levels of ADF and NDF(+amylase) contents. It can be concluded that bulgur is at least as good as a raw wheat in terms of dietary fibre content. Although there is no essential change in the total protein content, ash and ß-carotene contents of the bulgurs were lower than the ones in the original wheats as a result of debranning.

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Effects of salt stress on root growth, mitotic index, nuclear volume, vacuolization, nucleolar distortion and starch content were investigated in Turkish bread wheat ( Triticum aestivum L. cvs. Yildiz — salt sensitive, Dagdas — salt tolerant) and durum wheat ( Triticum durum L. cvs. C1252 — salt sensitive, Meramsalt tolerant) genotypes which were treated with 150 mM NaCI over a 6-day period. Salt treatment of wheat seedlings resulted in a decrease in root elongation and cell division in all genotypes at the 48 hours. According to controls, wheat root length decrease was 49% for Dagdas, 53.34% for Yildiz, 25.34% for Meram, 53.68% for C1252 at the 48 h. Mitotic index showed a more significant decrease in sensitive genotypes (1.24% for Yildiz, 0.66% for C1252 compairing to their controls 3.85% and 3.72%, respectively) of bread and durum wheat rather than tolerant ones (2.21% for Dagdas, 1.57% for Meram compairing to their controls 4.12% and 5.88%, respectively) at the 48 h of salt treatment. Calculated nuclear volume of wheat genotypes besides Dagdas showed a decline at the 48 h ranged from 1.57×10 5 to 2.13×10 5 μm 3 . Vacuolization and nuclear distortion appeared on DAPI-stained preparations. There was a clear reduction in starch content in salt treated genotypes of durum wheat.

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Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Authors: C. Galinha, M. Freitas, A. Pacheco, J. Kameník, J. Kučera, H. Anawar, J. Coutinho, B. Maçãs, and A. Almeida

Abstract  

Selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient for human health but it is deficient in at least 1 billion people around the globe. Cereals are by far the most significant agricultural crops, not only on a gross tonnage basis, but also by what they represent in terms of energy supply and dietary intake for human nutrition worldwide. Portugal is no exception to such pattern. The Portuguese situation is difficult to assess though, due to scarce information and lack of consistent studies on the subject. In these terms, the Se status of major cereals and their cultivation soils are dealt with herein. Two species of wheat–bread and durum wheat–were sown at the end of November 2009, and then sampled in different growth stages. Rye was collected during harvest season, and cultivation soils were analyzed as well. Se results were within the range of: 100–225 ng g−1 for soils; 3–55 ng g−1 for durum wheat; 6–80 ng g−1 for bread wheat; and 4–30 ng g−1 for rye. Accuracy of the RNAA procedure was proved by analysis of reference materials NIST-SRM 1515 and NIST-SRM 8433.

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Hexaploid synthetic wheat, derived from crosses between durum wheat and Aegilops tauschii, is widely accepted as an important source of useful traits for wheat breeding. During 2015 and 2016, three groups of synthetics were studied in Azerbaijan (3 sites) and Russia (1 site). Group 1 comprised CIMMYT primary synthetics derived from eastern European winter durum wheats crossed to Ae. tauschii accessions from the Caspian Sea basin. Group 2 included lines derived from CIMMYT synthetics × bread wheat crosses. Group 3 consisted of synthetics developed in Japan by crossing durum variety Langdon with a diverse collection of Ae. tauschii accessions. Varieties Bezostaya-1 and Seri were used as checks. Group 1 synthetics were better adapted and more productive than those in group 3, indicating that the durum parent plays an important role in the adaptation of synthetics. Compared to Bezostaya-1 synthetics produced fewer spikes per unit area, an important consideration for selecting bread wheat parents for maintenance of productivity. Synthetics had longer spikes but were not generally free-threshing. All synthetics and derivatives had 1000-kernel weights comparable to Bezostya-1 and significantly higher than Seri. All primary synthetics were resistant to leaf rust, several to stem rust, and few to stripe rust. Superior genotypes from all three groups that combine high expression of spike productivity traits and stress tolerance index were identified.

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Aguirano, E., Ruiz, M., Fitè, R., Carrillo, J.M. 2008. Genetic variation for glutenin and gliadins associated with quality in durum wheat ( Triticum turgidum L. ssp. turgidum ) landraces from Spain. Span. J

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We aimed to study the influence of soil water deficit on gas exchange parameters, dry matter partitioning in leaves, stem and spike and grain yield of durum (Triticum durum Desf.) and bread (Triticum aestivum L.) wheat genotypes in the 2013–2014 and 2014–2015 growing seasons. Water stress caused reduction of stomatal conductance, photosynthesis rate, transpiration rate, an increase of intercellular CO2 concentration. Photosynthesis rate positively correlated with growth rate of genotypes. Drought stress caused adaptive changes in dry matter partitioning between leaves, stem and spike of wheat genotypes. Stem dry mass increased until kernel ripening. Drought stress accelerated dry mass reduction in leaves and stem. High growth rate of spike dry mass was revealed in genotypes with late heading time. Spike dry mass positively correlated with photosynthesis rate and grain yield. Generally, bread wheat is more productive and tolerant to drought stress than durum wheat.

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FHB of wheat is a serious regional problem in Punjab. An outstanding bread wheat line RP-1/10 and three durum lines viz; WH 896, HD 4715 and MPO 1192-resistant to FHB have been identified. Aphids are important insect-pests in wheat and the FHB severity can be significantly reduced by more than 30%, by controlling these aphids by the application of Monocrotophos (insecticide) at boot + heading or at heading alone. A single application of Monocrotophos @ 0.1% followed 72h later by Tilt@0.1% at heading significantly improved FHB control and grain yield. The strobilurin fungicide-Amistar@ 0.1%, applied as a single spray at heading, was the best treatment in reducing FHB severity and improving grain yield. The efficacy of the fungicide was much higher in bread wheat compared to durum wheat. The results suggest that wheat aphids are important in FHB development and their management through insecticide in combination with fungicide can reduce FHB and improve grain yield.

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Abdel-Moneim, A. M. (1996): Estimating variability, heritability, genetic advance, phenotypic and genotypic correlation coefficients and selection efficiency of some traits in introduced durum wheat genotypes

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In recent years viral diseases have become more frequent on cereals in Hungary. In the breeding nursery of the Martonvásár Institute, which contains stocks with very diverse genetic backgrounds, wheat suffered major attacks by viruses in 1972, 1976, 1980, 1981, 1982, 1986, 1990, 1996 and 1998. The winter barley plots incurred great damage in 1989 and 1990, while a large proportion of the durum wheat was destroyed in 1996. In 1982 barley yellow dwarf virus caused an epidemic in Fejér County and on many farms the damage was so great that the fields had to be ploughed up. The following nine viruses, which impose a threat to cereals, have been identified in Hungary to date: 1966: barley yellow dwarf luteovirus (BYDV), 1984: barley stripe mosaic hordeivirus (BSMV), 1985: wheat streak mosaic tritimovirus (WSMV), 1986: brome mosaic bromovirus (BMV), cocksfoot mottle sobemovirus (CfMV), 1988: wheat dwarf mastrevirus (WDV), 1989: barley yellow mosaic bymovirus (BYMV), 1990: agropyron mosaic rymovirus (AgMV) and ryegrass mosaic rymovirus (RyMV). The most frequent and widespread of these are BYDV and WDV, which are thus able to cause the greatest quantitative and qualitative damage. On the basis of six years’ data (1994–2000), neither BYDV nor WDV could be isolated from 35.7% of 1163 samples exhibiting leaf yellowing and dwarfness. This indicates that other viruses pathogenic to cereals can induce similar symptoms. Among the plants showing symptoms of virus infection, 47.3% were attacked by WDV alone, in proportions ranging from 28.8% in barley to 69.7% in triticale. The degree of infection changed from year to year: WDV was isolated from 0.0% of symptom-exhibiting plants in 1999, from 48.5% in 1997 and from 94.0% in 2000. Barley yellow dwarf virus was only isolated alone from 9.5% of the samples, while it was isolated together with wheat dwarf virus from 7.5% of the samples. Considerable differences were observed between the cereal species: only 5.6% of the durum wheat samples were infected with BYDV, while this figure was 28.1% for oats. There was also a significant year effect. In 1996 triticale was not infected, while in 2000 5.0% of the plants exhibited symptoms and in 1994 45.5% of the plants were hosts to the BYD virus. Under Hungarian conditions all five known serotypes can be found, though in different proportions depending on the cereal species and the year. The most frequent is RPV (27.4%), followed by PAV (26.9%), SGV (15.6%), MAV (15.3%) and RMV (14.8%). In samples collected from oats only the PAV serotype was found. The MAV serotype has never been isolated from triticale. The dominant serotype was RPV (60.7%) in wheat samples, SGV (36.0%) in durum wheat and RMV (29.1%) in barley.

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