To understand the role of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT)-1A receptors in the treatment of anxiety and the development of tolerance to benzodiazepines the present study was designed to monitor the responsiveness of postsynaptic 5-HT-1A receptors following repeated administration of diazepam and buspirone. Results show that tolerance in the anxiolytic profile is produced following repeated administration (2 weeks) of diazepam (2 mg/kg) but not buspirone (0.5 mg/kg). The behavioral effects of 8-OH-DPAT at a dose of 0.25 mg/kg were monitored 3 days after repeated administration of saline or buspirone or diazepam. The results show that 8-OH-DPAT elicited forepaw treading was smaller in repeated diazepam but not repeated buspirone injected rats, while hyperlocomotive effects of 8-OH-DPAT were smaller in both repeated buspirone and repeated diazepam injected rats. The results suggest that postsynaptic 5-HT-1A receptor-dependent responses were attenuated following long-term administration of diazepam but not buspirone. Role of 5-HT-1A receptors in the development of tolerance to the anxiolytic effects of diazepam but not buspirone is discussed.
Authors:Julia S. Yumnam, Mayank Rai, and Wricha Tyagi
Phosphorus deficiency adversely affects crop productivity. The mechanism of tolerance in plants is not well understood. The current study successfully annotated a set of highly significant (Log2 RPKM ≥3) nine novel sequences up-regulated in P deficient condition identified from a low P tolerant rice genotype. Sequence annotation identified two transcripts (Os01g37260 and Os02g11060) carrying known domains, F-box and WD, respectively. Multiple Expectation maximization for Motif Elicitation (MEME) revealed presence of conserved domains like D[LP][HY][CL]D[CM][DT]C[AP][DQ][IQ]C, [EH][DN]HN[HS] [ER][FY][EP]I[HN]H which might play a role in phosphorus deficiency tolerance. Analysis of the upstream regions indicated presence of stress responsive elements like E Box, ABRE, and MYBCORE suggesting regulation of the novel transcripts by DNA binding. Protein localization prediction tool suggests that these novel proteins might be targeted to nucleus, chloroplast and cell wall. Transcripts Os02g03640 and Os02g10250 revealed potential target sites for microRNA binding suggesting role of novel miRNAs in low phosphorus response. Our analysis suggests that an F-box protein, Os01g37260 (OSFBx14) might be a promising candidate gene playing a role in multiple abiotic stresses including P deficiency.
Authors:Nadja Fodor, S. K. Dube, I. Fodor, E. Horváth, Edith Nagy, V. N. Vakharia, and Altancsimeg Rencendorsh
Direct DNA inoculations were used to determine the efficacy of gene immunisation of chickens to elicit protective immune responses against infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV). Thevp2 gene of IBDV strains GP40 and D78, and thevp2-vp4-vp3 encoding segment of strain D78 were cloned in an expression vector which consisted of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) immediate early enhancer and promoter, adenovirus tripartite leader sequences and SV40 polyadenylation signal. For purification of vaccine-quality plasmid DNA fromE. coli, an effective method was developed. Chickens were vaccinated by inoculation of DNA by two routes (intramuscular and intraperitoneal). Two weeks later, chickens were boosted with DNA, and at 2 weeks post-boost, they were challenged with virulent IBDV strain. Low to undetectable levels of IBDV-specific antibodies and no protection were observed with DNA encoding VP2. However, plasmids encoding VP2-VP4-VP3 induced IBDV-specific antibodies and protection in the chickens. DNA immunisation opens a new approach to the development of gene vaccines for chickens against infectious diseases.
A calcium signal is a sudden increase in the concentration of calcium ions (Ca2+) in the cytosol. Such signals are crucial for the control of many important functions of the body. In the brain, for example, Ca2+ signals are responsible for memory, in muscle cells they switch on contraction, whereas in gland cells they are responsible for regulation of secretion. In many cases Ca2+ signals can control several different processes in the same cell. As an example, we shall deal with one particular cell type, namely the pancreatic acinar cell, which is responsible for the secretion of the enzymes essential for the digestion of food. In this cell, Ca2+ signals do not only control the normal enzyme secretion, but also regulate growth (cell division) and programmed cell death (apoptosis). Until recently, it was a mystery how the same type of signal could regulate such diverse functions in one and the same cell. Recent technical advances have shown that different patterns of Ca2+ signals can be created, in space and time, which allow specific cellular responses to be elicited.
Cognitive revolution, beginning from the fifties, has made cognition the central topic in psychology. In the past decades, however, individualistic cognitive psychology has often been criticized. Several theoretical attempts were performed so as to replace or amend the study of information processing with the socially and culturally determined meaning construction. Narrative psychology, which is based on the fundamental role that the narrative function plays in constructing and communicating meaning, is one of these attempts. The branch of narrative psychology as we understand it considers narrative to be a natural form of organizing experiences, which shapes internal world of humans and, in the same time, links them to their society and culture. Narrative exists before the actual story, and stories generated either spontaneously or elicited in interviews carry the psychological meaning of people's internal world, as well as these stories reflect their relation to the world. Elementary linguistic forms are analyzed in terms of the holistic narrative structure, which is held to be the carrier of the psychologically relevant material. Thus, linguistic structure is not an implementation of mental functioning, in other words, mental functioning is not a causal factor in the emergent linguistic structure. It is rather an expression of complex psychological states and processes in terms of which people organize the meanings of their world and of their own selves.
Authors:Azam Khodashenas Nikoo, Padmashekar, and Abdoullah Namdar
Many reasons can be offered for the employment of non-violence, it breaks the cycle of violence and counter-violence, and also it is the surest way of achieving public sympathy. It is the only method of struggle that is consistent with the teachings of the major religions. Non-violence can also be the basis for a way of life. It is consistent with a belief in the underlying unity of humankind. Truth and non-violence are not possible without a living belief in God. It is a fact that non-violent activism is more powerful and effective than violent activism. By the very law of nature all bad things are associated with violence, while all good things are associated with non-violence. Violent activities breed hatred in society, while non-violent activities elicit love. Violence is the way of destruction while non-violence is the way of construction. The program of Islam is divided to bring peace into three main phases: 1) peace with God, 2) peace within the community, and 3) peace with others. In the Qur’an peace is one of God’s names and the word sabr exactly expresses the notion of non-violence, as it is understood in modern times. Religion emphasizes that peace of mind comes from tolerance and contentment. In Jainism, non-violence is not limited to refraining from mental, verbal and physical injury to human beings. It encompasses abstaining from injury to all living beings – all animals and plants.
The purpose of this study is to develop a prototype of a novel respiratory device that we validated and assessed clinically and examined the effect of prototype of respiratory device on blood pressure (BP).
Prototype of respiratory device (TU-Breath Training) was designed with pressure cuff and application software was created. The immediate effect of resisted breathing was determined in 20 adults with high BP (systolic BP ≥ 130 mmHg and diastolic BP ≥ 90 mmHg). A crossover study was designed. A total of 20 eligible participants were asked to sit quietly for 10 min. Heart rate (HR), BP, and oxygen saturation (SpO2) were measured and recorded. After the resting period, all participants were randomized and counterbalanced for undergoing the set of inspiratory muscle training by TU-Breath Training and control group. A set of respiratory training were composed of 10 times per set for three sets, while the control group was asked to sit for 10 min.
After inspiratory training, both the systolic and diastolic BP decreased significantly. Compared with control group, using TU-Breath Training decreased systolic BP (−7.00 ± 5.93 mmHg) and diastolic BP (−5.95 ± 8.88 mmHg), but did not show differences in HR and SpO2.
The study indicated that in high-BP participants, the prototype of respiratory device (TU-Breath Training) elicits decreased BP.
This paper examines the phenomenon of receptive multilingualism where speakers of two different languages communicate through each speaking his/her own language and understanding the other’s. Comprehension in such an interaction is aided by the speaker and the listener employing linguistic, discourse-pragmatic and other features which represent strategies of accommodation (i.e. reduction of linguistics dissimilarities). This phenomenon is not presented as an alternative to interpreting, but in the context of interpreters who work from or into a language which is closely related, but not identical to the language spoken by one of the participating clients. Background information is provided from language pairs with a high level of mutual intelligibility and the experiences of interpreters, while the focus of the data sample is on 23 interpreters who have accreditation in one, two or three of the following closely-related languages: Bosnian, Croatian and Serbian. Responses are elicited on the following: self-reported incidence of accommodation in non-interpreted interactions; linguistic and ethical protocols when a different, but closely-related language is used by a client; comments from clients about interpreters’ proficiency and ethnicity; attitudes on the distinctiveness of the three languages and future intelligibility. Informants’ linguistic behaviour is analysed according to the number of accreditations held and, in general, those with three accreditations report the highest levels of accommodation.
Authors:M. Pásztói, P. Misják, B. György, B. Aradi, T. G. Szabó, B. Szántó, M. Cs. Holub, Gy. Nagy, A. Falus, and E. I. Buzás
While the key initiating processes that trigger human autoimmune diseases remain enigmatic, increasing evidences support the concept that microbial stimuli are among major environmental factors eliciting autoimmune diseases in genetically susceptible individuals.
Here, we present an overview of evidences obtained through various experimental models of autoimmunity for the role of microbial stimuli in disease development. Disease onset and severity have been compared in numerous models under conventional, specific-pathogen-free and germ-free conditions. The results of these experiments suggest that there is no uniform scheme that could describe the role played by infectious agents in the experimental models of autoimmunity. While some models are dependent, others prove to be completely independent of microbial stimuli. In line with the threshold hypothesis of autoimmune diseases, highly relevant genetic factors or microbial stimuli induce autoimmunity on their own, without requiring further factors. Importantly, recent evidences show that colonization of germ-free animals with certain members of the commensal flora [such as segmented filamentous bacteria (SFB)] may lead to autoimmunity. These data drive attention to the importance of the complex composition of gut flora in maintaining immune homeostasis. The intriguing observation obtained in autoimmune animal models that parasites often confer protection against autoimmune disease development may suggest new therapeutic perspectives of infectious agents in autoimmunity.
Based on the data collected by KNOLL Hungary Ltd. in Hungary in 1999, 37% of the adult population is overweight while 23% is obese. Inappropriate diet containing excess calories and physical inactivity are responsible for these statistical values. In their former studies, the authors investigated the effects of different stages of obesity on the cardiovascular system, and have verified that even moderate obesity elicits pathological geometric and functional changes in the heart. In the present study, effect of a half-year-long life-style modification program on the morphologic and functional characteristics of the heart was investigated in twenty-one obese women. Life-style modification contained a diet with reduced energy uptake (1000–1300 Cal/day) and a regular physical training of minimum 3–4 hours weekly. By the end of the sixth month the weight loss was 5.1 kg (5.9%) on an average. There was a marked reduction in cardiac dimensions measured by echocardiography, with a very slight, non-significant decrease in left ventricular internal diameter, and a marked, significant reduction in the left ventricular wall thickness. Decrease of the left ventricular muscle mass exceeded the decrease of body weight. A marked elevation was found in the E/A quotient that reflected a definite improvement in diastolic function. Results indicate that physical training programs have a favourable effect on the echocardiographic parameters, therefore the process is reversible even without a pharmacological intervention.