Authors:A. Raemy, C. Appolonia Nouzille, P. Frossard, L. Sagalowicz, and M.-E. Leser
Summary Emulsifiers are often used in the food industry to stabilize interfaces in emulsions and foams, for example. When added to an aqueous phase, emulsifiers form spontaneously self-assembly structures. Such structured fluids can be used for active ingredients encapsulation or as micro-reactors for flavour formation. In the present paper we describe the potentialities of DSC, mainly micro-DSC, to study phase transitions of emulsifiers alone and with addition of water. The main role of the calorimetric techniques will probably be to precisely determine melting and crystallization zones, to inform about polymorphism and hysteresis due to undercooling, and especially to follow the effects of guest molecules on the weak liquid crystal transitions. Micro-DSC, when compared to other techniques, generally allows measurements over an extended temperature range.
A calorimetric investigation was performed on the partition ofn-pentanol in the external oil phase and in the interfacial layer of the water-in-oil microemulsion system sodium dodecyl-benzenesulfonate(DDBS)/n-pentanol/n-heptane/water. The results show that fine changes can be observed in the structure of the water-in-oil emulsion and microemulsion
droplets, such as then-pentanol/DDBS mole ratio increase in the interfacial layer; further, the alcohol/surfactant mole ratio α in the interfacial
layer of the droplets, and also the standard thermodynamic functions of the alcohol transition from the external phase to
the interfacial phase (ΔGe→so
), can be derived from calorimetric data.
Authors:L. Várnagy, P. Budai, Erzsébet Molnár, Mrs I. Füzesi, and T. Fáncsi
The insecticide formulation BI 58 EC was tested for teratogenicity in chicken embryos, with particular reference to degradation of the active ingredient (dimethoate) after the treatment of embryonated eggs. The pesticide was diluted in water to a concentration level of 0.8%, and the emulsion was injected into the air space in a volume of 0.1 ml/egg, or hen’s eggs were treated by the immersion technique. Residues of dimethoate were measured in the samples on days 13, 15 and 19 of the incubation of chicken embryos, and morphological examinations were performed simultaneously. Analytical chemistry data indicated a slower degradation of dimethoate in embryos after the immersion of eggs, and cyllosis was remarkable in this group among the sporadic developmental anomalies. The liver tissues ofboth treated groups exhibited severe fatty infiltration.
Authors:K. Aleklett, R. Brandt, M. Bronikowski, V. Butsev, B. Chasteler, G. Dersch, G. Feige, E. Friedlander, E. Ganssauge, G. Haase, J. Herrmann, D. Hoffman, B. Judek, P. Kosma, B. Kulakov, E. Langrock, D. Lee, W. Loveland, F. Pille, N. Porile, W. Schulz, and G. Seaborg
In recent years the question of the unusual behavior of projectile fragments formed in the interaction of relativistic heavy ions with copper nuclei was studied using nuclear chemistry techniques. As targets we used various copper disk arrangements. It is not the intention of this conference contribution to give a complete account of the entire procedure and its results. However, we want to present a few more recent experimental findings, some of them even in a preliminary form. We want to stimulate the discussion about the entire problem which might be part of the so-called anomalon phenomenon, as observed in the field of relativistic heavy ion interactions with a few other techniques such as nuclear emulsions or bubble chambers.
The aim of the present study was to test the antioxidant activity of rosemary extract and its mixture with propylene glycol on the stability of fat in butter. Rosemary extract was added at a concentration of 0.02% (w/w) and mixture of rosemary extract with propylene glycol at a concentration of 0.25% (w/w) to the cream before churning. For comparison, control samples without added antioxidant were also prepared and tested. Samples were stored at 4 °C and at 20 °C for 27 days and their peroxide values were determined periodically. The measurement of peroxide values for butter at 60 and 98 °C was also performed. Activity of rosemary extracts was compared with synthetic antioxidant BHT. The rosemary extract and its mixture with propylene glycol exhibited strong antioxidant activity in butter when added to a cream before churning and in an aqueous emulsion system of β-carotene and linolenic acid.
A methodology for the isotopic determination of lithium in enriched7LiOH.2H2O samples by SSMS is described. The photoplate emulsion calibration curve was not used. The accuracy of the results was checked against the analysis of LiOH.2H2O with natural isotopic composition, and it was found that the result obtained was accurate within 5% with respect to the published natural value. The accuracy was improved using an enriched in7Li reference sample. The technique was applied to the analysis of batches of7LiOH.2H2O to be used in a nuclear power reactor to control the pH in the water cooling system.
Authors:Guo Jin-xin, Sun Si-xiu, Zhu Rong-xiu, Yin Zhi-lei, Yu Hai-yun, Li Da-zhi, Zhang Wei-min, Xu Xian-gang, Sun Xuan, and Shao Hua
The mechanism of solvent extraction of uranium(VI) from highly concentrated chloride solution with a quaternary ammonium salt,
benzyloctadecyldimethylammonium chloride (BODMAC, R4NCl), dissolved in chloroform was studied. The compositions of the extracted species were R4N.UO2Cl3 and (R4N)2.UO2Cl4. The extraction process is exothermic (ΔH° = -8.42±0.54 KJ/mol). Kex1 and Kex2 are calculated to be (3.62±0.55).10-2 and (1.06±0.17).103, respectively. In the extraction process, a W/O uranium(VI) rich emulsion solution has been formed between the organic and
aqueous phases, its volume increased with the increase of BODMAC in the system. The influences of temperature, NaCl, MgCl2 and MgSO4 concentrations on the extraction equilibrium were also studied.
Authors:Baki Sadi, Chunsheng Li, Gary Kramer, Cassandra Johnson, Queenie Ko, and Edward Lai
A new radioanalytical method was developed for rapid determination of 226Ra in drinking water samples. The method is based on extraction and preconcentration of 226Ra from a water sample to an organic solvent using a dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) technique followed by
radiometric measurement using liquid scintillation counting. In DLLME for 226Ra, a mixture of an organic extractant (toluene doped with dibenzo-21-crown-7 and 2-theonyltrifluoroacetone) and a disperser
solvent (acetonitrile) is rapidly injected into the water sample resulting in the formation of an emulsion. Within the emulsion,
226Ra reacts with dibenzo-21-crown-7 and 2-theonyltrifluoroacetone and partitions into the fine droplets of toluene. The water/toluene
phases were separated by addition of acetonitrile as a de-emulsifier solvent. The toluene phase containing 226Ra was then measured by liquid scintillation counting. Several parameters were studied to optimize the extraction efficiency
of 226Ra, including water immiscible organic solvent, disperser and de-emulsifier solvent type and their volume, chelating ligands
for 226Ra and their concentrations, inorganic salt additive and its concentration, and equilibrium pH. With the optimized DLLME conditions,
the accuracy (expressed as relative bias, Br) and method repeatability (expressed as relative precision, SB) were determined by spiking 226Ra at the maximum acceptable concentration level (0.5 Bq L−1) according to the Guidelines for Canadian Drinking Water Quality. Accuracy and repeatability were found to be less than −5%
(Br) and less than 6% (SB), respectively, for both tap water and bottled natural spring water samples. The minimum detectable activity and sample turnaround
time for determination of 226Ra was 33 mBq L−1 and less than 3 h, respectively. The DLLME technique is selective for extraction of 226Ra from its decay progenies.
C-reactive protein (CRP) and haptoglobin (Hp) are well-known acute phase proteins in the dog. Currently, a commercial ELISA and a colorimetric assay are the methods of choice for measuring CRP and Hp, respectively; however, these assays showed interference when using haemolysed, lipaemic or hyperbilirubinaemic samples. Recently, time-resolved immunofluorometric assays (TRIFMAs) have been developed for measuring canine CRP and Hp. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of increasing concentrations of haemoglobin, lipids and bilirubin in CRP and Hp serum measurements using these new fluoroimmunoassays. Haemolysis was produced by freezing blood cells at −20°C. The haemolysate was added to pooled sera at final concentrations of 0, 2.5, 5, 10, 20 and 40 g/L. A commercial emulsion of triglycerides was added to homologous pooled sera at 0, 0.35, 0.7, 1.4, 2.8, 5.6 and 11.2 mmol/L. Bilirubin, initially dissolved in dimethyl sulphoxide, was added to pooled sera at 0, 64.2, 128.4, 256.8, 513.7 and 1027.4 μmol/L. Addition of fresh haemolysate, triglycerides or bilirubin to serum samples did not affect either CRP or Hp concentrations (P ≥ 0.18), so the TR-IFMAs could be an alternative to the traditional tests for measuring canine CRP and Hp in those laboratories where immunofluorometric assays are available.
The crystallisation properties of a mixture of triacylglycerols (TG), cocoa butter (CB) 75%/miglyol 25%, were investigated
on cooling at 0.5 °C/min using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The influence of (i) the
dispersion of TG within nanoparticles stabilised by proteins, and of (ii) the presence of polar lipids were characterised.
In bulk, crystallisation of TG successively occurred with a α 2L (49.3 Å) structure, then the formation of longitudinal stackings
of 44.5 and 34.5 Å of β′ form was interpreted as co-crystallisation of TG from CB and miglyol. The dispersion of TG in nanoparticles
of about 400 nm induced a higher supercooling and changed their crystallisation properties. The formation of α 49.2 Å and
β′ 45 Å structures corresponded to the segregation of TG from CB in solid phases while TG from miglyol remained liquid. Phospholipids
with saturated fatty acid chains affected the thermal properties of TG, which demonstrated their localisation at the surface
of the nanoparticles. DSC and XRD revealed to be very sensitive and adapted methods to increase the knowledge about the mechanisms
of crystallisation in emulsion.