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The Cornelia-figure of Lucan is a relative of the female figures of Virgil and Ovid according to linguistic and motivic references, however, on a motivic level, it should be grateful to the tragedies of Propertius and Seneca. In the Cornelia-narrative of Lucan we can assume, on the one hand a conscious linguistic and motivic reference to Ariadne of Catull with a reasonable certainty, and on the other hand to many other longer or shorter Ariadne-narratives of Ovid. The study reviews the possible references to the Ariadne-story in the epic of Lucan. In Rome, where the Naxos-episode, the most frequently mentioned part of the Ariande-story was set, the image of katasterismos was linked to the figure of the princess of Crete: which means that the connection of the ‘Ariadne in Naxos’-story with Cornelia can be a mythological metaphor of the image of becoming god. So, as a virtuous woman, Cornelia does deserve becoming a god in connection with her husband, just like Pompey as a man.

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This study deals with the Ancient Latin and Old Hungarian adaptations of the most drastic myth of Tereus, Philomela and Progne. Ovid inserted the story into the 6th book of the Metamomorphoses (lines 424–674). István Gyöngyösi, called “Hungarian Ovid” by right, adapted an Ovidian text in compliance with baroque literary and translation aspects. The translation makes part of the poem called Csalárd Cupido (Fraudulent Cupido) composed in hardly identifiable epic genre in the 17th century. The Ovidian insertion became the third part of the four-part poem, focusing on the demonstration of the outrages caused by Cupido. The main characteristics of the Gyöngyösi’s adaptation are: the domestication (for example in the case of the Dionysian rites), the large insertions, the enlargement and amplification, the borrowings and changings of the motifs and patterns and the spectacular actualisation. The motive of the fire is, for example, much more emphased in the Hungarian version. Both of the authors makes capital of the rhetorics, but the Hungarian text turns up the rhetorical elements and uses them as the instrument or device of the retardation and of the itemization or specification. The animal motifs being found several times in the text are used to exagerate or heighten the drastic apspects and to point out to demonstrate some animal qualities of the human beeings.

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Introduction

Idyllic landscapes in antiquity: The Golden Age, Arcadia, and the locus amoenus

Acta Antiqua Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae
Authors: Patricia Johnston and Sophia Papaioannou

In the Western literary tradition the concept of the Golden Age and its identification with a special location is as old as the earliest poetic compositions, for it features prominently in the 8th c. BCE didactic epic Works and Days by the Greek poet Hesiod. Filtered through the sophisticated and poetically-determined poetry of the Alexandrians (Theocritus, Aratus), the Golden Age, now linked to an idyllic pastoral landscape, becomes the centerpiece, the common point of reference of all ten poems that comprise Vergil’s earliest work, the Eclogues. In Vergil’s pastoral art the Golden Age is identified with Arcadia, a location allegedly evoking the Greek area at the center of the Peloponnese, proverbial for its rusticity and shunning of civilization, and as a result, free of all pretention. The fashioning, significance and transformation of the Arcadia theme in literature, both ancient and later, and the evolution of the Augustan model, is the topic of the present volume, the structure and objectives of which are detailed in this introductory chapter.

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At the beginning of the 19th century, when the poets wanted to create the national epic poem of Hungarians, they followed the Aeneid; at the end of the 18th century, when the agricultural reform was established in Hungary under the Habsburgs, the poets wrote agricultural poems in Vergilian form and translated and modernized his Georgics. The world of Vergil depicted in the Eclogues and in the Georgics became the idealized Arcadia, and poets and writers or the aristocracy — influenced by Vergil — wanted to create their own Arcadia. The pastoral theme and the bucolical forms were very popular in Hungarian literature of this period, at the end of the 18th century. The poets had pastoral names, and very different topics were expressed in eclogues (e.g. actual events of politics). In the first half of the 20th century Vergil had a new renaissance connected to the bimillennium of his birth. And this renaissance reached the most expressive element of the presence of Vergil’s Bucolics in the poetry of Miklós Radnóti (1909–1944), whose eclogues are the most tragic expression of cruelty of war. My paper focuses on the influence of Virgil’s Bucolics in Radnóti’s poetry, but his examples can attest to the deep influence of Vergil on Hungarian literature.

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Harms's case "The Blue Notebook No 10", which is a cisfinite miniature about the infinity of human non-existence, is seen by the author as an a-rational (IT = NON/IT) creative inovation: the defictionalisation of the narrative convention of the character, up to the point of cisfinite zero.      Particular attention is drawn to the polemical intertextual "collisions" (The OBERIU Declaration) of Harms's reddish-brown man with a canonized pattern of the classic Russian realistic (and socrealistic) characterisation (the 'outer' and the 'inner portrait'; procedures, actions). Simultaneously, the 'demimesis' of the reddish-brown man destroys the traditional mimetic model of character structuralisation of the European romanesque production. Naturally, with a strong emphasis on the realistic model, which has already become an object of destruction - in the dadadistic avant-garde palimpsests (poeme simultane, dadaistic collage and photomontage, ready-made) as in the romanesque fiction of, for example, F. Kaf-ka, J. Joyce, W. Faulkner, J. P. Sartre, A. Camus.         As the defictionalisation of the character the universal epic literary convention in "The Blue Notebook No 10" becomes metapoetic DEFICTION/DEMIMESIS of the character as described by Aristotle in his Poetics.

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In this essay I intend to textually and thematically study some of the verses found in the introductory canto of Kālidāsa’s epic poem, the Kumārasaṃbhava, perhaps one of the most famous and oftquoted works in Sanskrit poetics and yet one of the most contentious and least studied. First, I will be unpacking the main themes and images operating in the descriptions of Himālaya, which is considered according to commentators as the vastunirdeśa of the text, or’ indication of the plot’ — and thus,’ what is about to happen in the story’. I argue that these comprise an undermining statement about the poem’s ostensible aim — the so-called’ love story’ of Śiva and Pārvatī — thus covertly presenting an alternate point of view, rather poignant, about the relationship between the hero and heroine. Next, I discuss the descriptions of Pārvatī and examine their aesthetical value, their fantasy-like mood, their relationship with Himālaya’s description and the way they reveal the existence of another important, generally neglected, integral factor at work within the text, which is the presence of the recipient of poetry outside the text, the rasika, the connoisseur of poetry. I have one major hypothesis about this compelling frame of the poem, which stands as if independent from the rest of the text. I believe that what seem to be the poet’s core statement about the nature of love and its consequences in his poem is encoded within its two descriptive patterns.

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What makes a good poet according to Someśvaradeva?

Poetic merit, demerit and the ethics of poetry in the Surathotsava and the Kīrtikaumudī

Acta Orientalia Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae
Author: Bihani Sarkar

In 13th-century Gujarat, the court of the Caulukya emperors in Aṇahilavāḍa-Pāṭan offered patronage and employment to a highly learned group of individuals. These men also wrote poetry and drama in their spare time — for their amusement, as a mark of culture and to comment upon the events of their times. Within this group, Someśvaradeva, royal chaplain to the Caulukya monarch Bhīma II and his Vāghela successors Lavaṇaprasāda and Vīradhavala, was renowned for having written a composition in only one and a half hours. He offers us in his writings a wealth of historical information on his political circumstances, along with subtle reflections on the ethics of poetry. Who is a good poet? Who is a bad poet? Is a good poet a virtuous individual (sajjana)? Is a bad poet a rogue (durjana)? Who are the models of poetic propriety? Such are some of Someśvaradeva’s concerns. These frequently satirical commentaries on standards of poetry and the ideal poetic disposition appear in the preambles to his two epic poems, the Surathotsava 1.30–64 and the Kīrtikaumudī 1.7–46. Despite their sophistication, they have hardly interested most scholars working on these texts. The article analyses these passages in detail for the first time, and examines the ethics that Someśvaradeva, and the poets of his company, felt underlay the art of poetry.

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If Liszt’s early work Don Sanche ou le Château d’Amour, that includes danced parts, is not taken into account, he never composed music for dance. In the twentieth century, however, the composer’s music became an interesting material for choreographers and dancers. My paper is focused on a choreographic interpretation of Liszt’s Dante Sonata, made by Frederick Ashton. This choreography was realized by Ashton in 1940 in London, in collaboration with Constant Lambert. Ashton’s Dante Sonata is an abstract and symbolic ballet. He created the association between dance and music on a relationship of correspondence point to point of the two languages and on a cultural and emotive communion with Liszt. My study wants to show what the Ashtonian choreography highlights: Liszt renews the traditional sonata form from its inside; he gives it a new lymph by making it go through a symbolic content; the symbolized literary content is the Dantesque medieval allegory of the Christian ascensional course transformed by Hugo in metaphor of the restless walk of the romantic man. So, Liszt invests the medieval epic literary model of the great themes of the Romantic generation and renews, under its influence, the sonata form.

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On 18 March 1893 the opera Toldi by Ödön (Edmund von) Mihalovich (1842–1929) was premiered at the Royal Hungarian Opera House in Budapest. Three month later Ferenc Erkel, founder and single most important composer of the Hungarian national opera died. One of the funeral speeches at his burial was held by Mihalovich. This gesture was meant as a symbolic mounting of the guard on the national operatic scene. However, Toldi, written on a libretto based on Toldi szerelme (Toldi’s Love), the middle epic of János Arany’s Toldi trilogy, proved to be unsuccesful. It was staged again as Toldi’s Love in 1895 after a thorough revision. One cannot overlook the fact that in the newly composed third act Mihalovich wanted to write the loyalist counterpart of the conflictuous third act in Erkel’s Bánk bán. The paper discusses the question whether the first and only opera on a Hungarian text by the solid Wagnerite Mihalovich could at the time fulfil the official national expectations and become the representative national opera of the Millennium, that is, the Thousand Year Jubilee of the Carpathian Basin’s conquest by the Hungarian tribes, celebrated in 1896.

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Abstract  

Although nature looms large throughout Homer’s Odyssey, literary critics have entirely neglected to discuss his construction of the natural world in this foundational Western work. This neglect might be the result of two factors: the blurred line between geographical and fantastical locales in Odysseus’ travels and the blurred line between natural forces and deities. This essay recognizes that Homer not only reconstructs the Mediterranean world in his epic through detailed references to weather, geology, plants, birds, and animals but also that his similes suggest a consciousness of inter-species relationships. Principally, however, this essay argues, as does William Cronon, that “relationships, processes, and systems are as ecological as they are cultural,” and that Odysseus’ response to nature may usefully be understood in relation to three ecocritical models: the anthropocentric or domination model, the stewardship model, and the biomorphic model. His exploitative and aggressive behavior toward the Cyclopes, Circe, and the cattle of the Sun is contrasted with his recognition upon his homecoming of his own animal nature and his appreciation of the agrarian and pastoral life. While the tradition of writing in The Odyssey genre has vigorously continued in Western literature, only recently have contemporary environmental writers moved toward a recognition of the threat of the anthropocentric perspective to the imperative of working toward the stewardship and biomorphic models.

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