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Abstract  

Proline and hydroxyproline are two amino acids which due to their analogous chemical structures give similar reactions and often appear together. In view of the high percentage of proline in wheat gluten we have investigated the presence of hydroxyproline in wheat flour. We have developed a method to separate the two amino acids after separation from other interfering amino acids which are present in flour. The method of separation utilizes an ion-exchange column/Dowex 50 X-8, 100–200 resin/. The separated amino acids are determined either by spectrophotometry or isotope dilution /14C/ The latter method is more rapid and more sensitive than the spectrophotometric method.

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.Genet. 1983 64 289 293 Payne P I, 1984: The association between γ-gliadin 45 and gluten strength in durum wheat varieties: a

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Cereal Research Communications
Authors: L. Wei, S.G. Bai, X.J. Hou, J.M. Li, B. Zhang, W.J. Chen, D.C. Liu, B.L. Liu, and H.G. Zhang

Anjum F.M., Khan M.R., Din A., Saeed M., Pasha I., Arshad M.U. 2007. Wheat gluten: High molecular weight glutenin subunits — Structure, genetics, and relation to dough elasticity. J. Food Sci. 72 :R56–R63

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Cereal Research Communications
Authors: M. Demichelis, L.S. Vanzetti, J.M. Crescente, M.M. Nisi, L. Pflüger, C.T. Bainotti, M.B. Cuniberti, L.R. Mir, and M. Helguera

Seed storage proteins (gliadins and glutenins) play a key role in the determination of dough and bread-making quality in bread wheat. This is due to the interaction between high and low molecular weight glutenins subunits and gliadins, via complex inter- and intramolecular bondings. In contrast to high molecular weight glutenins, low molecular weight glutenins and gliadins analysis is difficult due to the large number of expressed subunits and coding genes. For these reasons the role of individual proteins/subunits in the determination of wheat quality is less clear. In this work we studied the effect of gene clusters Glu-A3/Gli-A1 and Glu-D3/Gli-D1 in bread-making quality parameters using 20 F4-6 families from the cross Prointa Guazú × Prointa Oasis, both cultivars carrying identical high molecular weight glutenins subunits composition and presence of 1BL/1RS wheat-rye translocation, but differing in Glu-A3/Glu-D3 low molecular weight glutenins subunits and Gli-A1/Gli-D1 gliadins patterns. ANCOVA analysis showed a significant contribution of the Glu-D3/Gli-D1 gene cluster provided by Prointa Guazú to gluten strength explained by mixograph parameters MDS and PW, and Zeleny Test. Markers tagging Prointa Guazú Glu-D3/Gli-D1 alleles are available for strong gluten selection in breeding programs.

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Due to developments in the food and baking industry, grain quality determines prices and market options to a large extent. The introduction of high quality wheat varieties into cultivation requires not only favourable technological parameters, but also good adaptation to unfavourable environmental conditions. The level of rainfall in Poland during the spring and summer differs greatly from one years to the other, so the varieties introduced into cultivation must be capable of giving high values of quality parameters with both an excess and deficit of rainfall. the aim of the present work was thus to study whether the quantity of rainfall affected the technological traits determining the industrial usefulness of the crop, and if so, in what way. interactions were observed between the evaluated genotypes and the environmental conditions (particular years and locations), which greatly influenced the average level of the technological traits. This was most strongly observed for traits related to gluten quantity and quality. the rainfall level over the whole vegetation period was not correlated with the technological traits examined, while the rainfall measured in May significantly influenced the sedimentation value and water absorption (r= -0.68** and r= -0.54*), which are the traits most strongly related to the gluten quality and rheological qualities of the dough.

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Wheat flour was enhanced by linseed fibre, characterised by granulation 500–700 μm. Using seeds from 2015 flax harvest, linseed fibre was gained from two golden and one brown linseed varieties (Amon, Raciol and Recital, respectively). Additions at levels 2.5% and 5.0% affected amylases activity and protein technological quality softly, evaluated by Falling Number and Zeleny sedimentation tests, respectively. Both brown and yellow linseed fibre significantly supported extensograph elasticity of non-fermented dough. Baking potential of composites tested evaluated as extensograph energy significantly decreased about 7–18%, likely owing to dilution of dough gluten skeleton. Pasting behaviour of flour composites reflected a hydrophilic character of non-traditional material – amylograph viscosity was elevated from 590 units to ca 700 units by Amon and Recital fibre, and to ca 930 units by Raciol fibre. Pasting profiles of flour composites, recorded by using of Rapid Visco Analyser, confirmed this finding. Dough fermentation was represented by maturograph test, during which the tested samples were differentiated in part according to the dough resistance. Reflecting small modifications in dough visco-elastic properties, specific volumes of bread buns were similar trough whole sample set. A weak worsening of buns vaulting reflected a partial disruption of dough gluten skeleton. Consumer’s quality of all enhanced bread variants was evaluated in category acceptable, determined as crumb penetration (values higher than 20 mm).

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Cereal Research Communications
Authors: Georg Drezner, Kresimir Dvojkovic, Daniela Horvat, Dario Novoselovic, Alojzije Lalic, Darko Babic, and Josip Kovacevic

Trials with seven genotypes of winter wheat were set up as RCB design at four locations in continental part of Croatia in three repetitions during 2004 and 2005 year. Grain yield and indirect quality traits were analyzed. Statistically significant differences for all traits were found among cultivars (G), locations (L) and years (Y), and for all interactions (GxL, GxY, LxY, GxLxY) except for the interaction GxLxY for protein and wet gluten content and for the interaction term GxL for grain yield. In 2004 year higher grain yields were realized as compared to 2005. The same trend has been reached for all analysed quality traits (2004 was better than 2005) except for sedimentation value. The highest grain yields, test weights and wet gluten content were realized at location Osijek. Highest protein content and sedimentation value were found at location Nova Gradiska. The most yielding genotypes with lowest coefficient of variation for grain yield over locations and years were Seva, Demetra and Srpanjka, while the most favorable quality traits with the lowest coefficient of variation were found for Golubica, Zitarka and Panonka.

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Field experiments were conducted over 3 years to assess the effects of fungicides (F) containing strobilurins (alone and in mixture with morpholine, triazoles) and triazoles (epoxiconazole or propiconazole) on winter wheat ‘Zentos’ grain quality, incidence of Fusarium head blight (FHB) in the field, grain contamination with fungi and mycotoxins. The effect of strobilurins and triazoles on the parameters tested was more dependent on the weather conditions of the growing season than on the F applied. The incidence of FHB was low in 2002 and 2003, but high in 2004. Averaged data suggest that strobilurin treatments decreased the level of FHB. In 2002, grain contamination with fungi was lower than in 2003 and 2004. The data on the impact of fungicides on post-harvest grain infection with Fusarium spp. and contamination with mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEN) and T-2 were controversial. The fungicides only insignificantly affected protein and gluten concentration in grain, as well as sedimentation and falling number. All grain quality components were especially dependent on the year (significant at P<0.01). However, fungicide application significantly, at P<0.01, increased grain protein and gluten yields: they were higher for the strobilurin-treated plots (with a small exception) than for the untreated and those treated with propiconazole.

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Acta Physiologica Hungarica
Authors: L.R. Nikoukar, Fatemeh Nabavizadeh, S.M. Mohamadi, A. Moslehi, G. Hassanzadeh, H. Nahrevanian, and S. Agah

response after short-term gluten challenge in celiac disease and non-celiac gluten sensitivity. Am. J. Gastroenterol. 108, 842–850 (2013) Lundin K.E. Mucosal cytokine response after short-term gluten challenge in celiac disease

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—299. Bellini, A., Zanchi, Ch., Martelossi, S., Leo, G.D., Not, T., & Ventura, A. (2011). Compliance with the gluten-free diet: The role of locus of control in celiac disease . Journal of Pediatrics, 158, 463—466. Bercik, P., Verdu, E

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