Enea Silvio Piccolomini in his work entitled
written in 1458, tells an interesting story defined as a legend in terms of genre about a duke called Ingo, who lived during the reign of Charlemagne. This narrative claims that in 790
Ingo held a feast for the inhabitants of his province where food was served to the peasants allowed to appear before him in golden and silver bowls, while to the dignitaries standing further away from him in bowls made of clay. The researchers’ attention is deservedly raised by the query how come that this parabolical story with biblical tone was included in Enea Silvio’s work; if it had been borrowed who the
might have been he borrowed it from. The answer seems to be very simple: from the
Conversio Bagoariorum et Carantanorum
drafted regarding the lawsuit proceeded against Methodius. In the case narrated in the
Ingo sent a charter or much rather a parchment without any writing, or letters on it
(carta sine litteris)
, which provided his legate with sufficient authenticity to demand obedience from the people.In this study-after having compared the two narratives and outlined the place of De Europa in Enea Silvio Piccolomini’s oeuvre and the circumstances of the drafting and tendencies of the Conversio Bagoariorum et Carantanorum-the author attempts to answer the following questions. To what extent can duke Ingo, mentioned by Enea Silvio and not questioned in the literature for long centuries, be considered a real historical person? Does the Conversio refer to Ingo as a duke, and if it does, what is his existence as a duke and introduction in the literature as a duke owing to? What could the meaning of carta sine litteris referred to in Conversio have been, and why did Enea Silvio not take this item over although he could have put it forward as a further proof of Ingo’s dignity? To what literary prefigurations can the description of the feast held by Ingo be traced back to, and what role did it play in the Conversio? Regarding the borrowing of the Ingo story by Enea Silvio, what possible intermediary writing and author can be reckoned with?
Authors:Bakhyt Aubakirova, Kinga M. Mandel, and Balazs Benkei-Kovacs
This literature review article is dedicated to the issues and notion of multilingualism, particularly in Kazakhstan. Kazakhstan is a multiethnic country where more than 130 different ethnic groups reside. At present, a fast multilingual advancement is taking place in Kazakhstan. The study explores the origins and definitions of multilingualism, the role of multilingualism in the development of the Kazakhstani education system, and the models of multilingual education in Kazakhstan. Different approaches and definitions in terms of multilingualism and the performance and implementation of multilingual education are presented. The development of multilingual education in the Kazakhstani educational system plays a pivotal role and it is rapidly developing. The implementation of multilingual education in this country aims at integrating and internationalization of Kazakhstan to the world’s educational and scientific societies. Multilingualism is also widespread in some of the European countries. Several approaches related to the multilingualism and multilingual education are indicated in this article. This paper introduces the challenges and suggestions of diverse alternatives of multilingual education in Kazakhstani higher education institutions.
This article examines the question of criminal liability in terms of the theoretical distinction between justification and excuse. By contrast with German and other continental criminal law systems, the distinction has not played a significant part in the development of criminal law doctrine in common law jurisdictions. Over the past twenty years, however, there has been a growing interest in the benefits of this approach to conceptualising criminal liability, manifested by the considerable literature on justification and excuse and the frequent references to the distinction in judicial decisions and legislative enactments. Although the distinction has been given a great deal of attention in common law countries in recent years, attempts at a systematic classification of criminal law defences on this basis run up against serious difficulties. These difficulties have much to do with the fact that elements of both justification and excuse often appear to overlap in the moral basis of a legal defence. It is argued that, notwithstanding these difficulties, the theory of justification and excuse offers a viable model, which can achieve and maintain coherence among criminal law defences and facilitate understanding and acceptance of criminal law and its presuppositions.
The idiom of the scales of justiceis commonly known and widely used. Iustitia can frequently be seen in different representations holding scales in her hand. The scales as a means or a symbol of justice (justness) or the administration of justice can be encountered in various places in Greek literature, one of its earliest instances being the Homeric Hermes' Hymn (Dikés talanta). According to these loci Zeus holds the scales of Diké, that is to say, the scales of justice in his hand. In the Iliad (23, 109-213) one may come across a scene presented in context, thus suitable for being more amply analysed, in which Zeus is pronouncing justice over the heroes using a pair of scales. In search of the meaning of Dikés talanta, this study tries to clarify the concept of law and justice (justness) in Homeric epic (I.), then by a structural (II.) and comparative analysis (III.) of certain lines of the weighing scene, decisive in the combat of Achilles and Hector, it formulates a few remarks on the origin and meaning of the concept of the scales of justice. One cannot claim that this idea of Egyptian religion had been transferred in its entirety into Greek thinking, but it is not surprising, as one can barely encounter an unaltered Egyptian borrowing in Greek mythological thinking. Nonetheless, some Egyptian influence, possibly with Cretan transmission, can be detected in the development of the Greek versions of psykhostasia and kerostasia. Pictorial as well as textual manifestations of such influence can be found on the one hand in vase-paintings, and on the other hand-undergoing a specific alteration of aspect in the form of kerostasia-in Homer, who paved the way for the scales of justice of Zeus and Iuppiter to become the symbol of Diké and Iustitia, and subsequently of the administration of justice itself.