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DiFrancesco, C. Schema Therapy for Couples és Marriages . Letöltve: 2013. 05. 02-án: DiFrancesco C

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The reconstruction of the collection of the Count Vigyázó family is based on documents, archive photos as well as over 250 silver objects in the Goldsmith's Department of the Museum of Applied Arts and nearly two dozen art works (tapestry, silverware, furniture) in the art collection of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. All this is, however, only a fragment of the one-time collection associated with Count Sándor Vigyázó of Bojár (1825–1921) and his son Ferenc (1874–1928).

Apart from the acquisitions of these two counts, the collection was also enlarged through the fusion of the goods of two families. Sándor Vigyázó married baroness Zsuzsanna Podmaniczky in 1873, a wealthy scion of an Aszód-based historic family of aristocrats. The growth of the collection was also facilitated by collateral inheritance within the family as well as by purchases e.g. from the collection of Géza Kárász (1828–1888). By the 1880s the collection has assumed its final state, its prize possessions being tapestries, silverware, clocks and watches, jewels, weapons (mainly those connected to prominent historical persons) and caskets.

Similarly to the collection of the barons Radvánszky, a family related to the Vigyázós, the silver collection of the Vigyázó family had both culture and art historical significance. It displayed the diversity of the goldsmiths' craft and a wide array of their product types. Among their 16–17th century objects a considerable Hungarian selection was also included in addition to the works by Augsburg and Nuremberg masters. Specialties of the collection were a silver book cover adorned with a scene crafted after Dürer's print and a boat-shaped table ornament.

In the Vigyázó homes — in the country house at Vácrátót and in the palace at No. 1 Károly körút [boulevard] in Pest — there were also oriental objects beside the European pieces and contemporary art objects were also added to the historical collection.

The last will of Count Sándor Vigyázó dated February 15, 1919 spelt out that should his son Ferenc die without an heir (ultimus tituli in the family), all the Vigyázó property should pass on to the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. The testament of Mrs Sándor Vigyázó born Zsuzsanna Podmaniczky provided for the maintenance in the original state of the Podmaniczky mansion at Rákoskeresztúr. Count Ferenc Vigyázó committed suicide in 1928 and as he complied by his parents' wish, the Hungarian Academy of Sciences became heir-at-law of the fortune. The institution settled the pending debts and the legal claims of other heirs (sons and grandchild of the female line from Zsuzsanna Podmaniczky's first marriage) by auctioning off the nonmuseal part of the collection. The library was incorporated in the Academy and the antiques were exhibited in the Podmaniczky mansion at Rákoskeresztúr opened in 1935. In World War II part of the country house burnt out and the bulk of the collection perished. The rescued tapestries were temporarily deposited at the Museum of Applied Arts and in 1950 three crates of silverware were given to the museum on permanent loan. In 1951 the Academy took back some of the objects that became listed in 1952, and the rest of the silverware and the clocks that remained in the museum were integrated in the museum collections in 1953.

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What brings together Daniel Defoe, Charles Dickens, Vsevolod Krestovsky, Nikolai Chernyshevsky, Fyodor Dostoevsky, Аlexander Kuprin, George Bernard Shaw, and Аstrid Lindgren, i.e. writers from different countries and belonging to different epochs? In their creative work, they all used stenography, or rapid writing, permitting a person to listen to true speech and record it simultaneously.

This paper discloses the role of stenography in literary activities of European and Russian writers in the 19th and early 20th centuries. Some researchers believe that the first ties between shorthand and literature appeared in the days of Shakespeare when the playwright's competitors used shorthand to put down the texts of his plays. Others have convincingly refuted this viewpoint, proving that such records never existed. The most famous English novelist in the 17th and 18th centuries Daniel Defoe can be considered one of the first writers who used shorthand in his literary work. The writers mastering the art of shorthand writing such as Defoe, Dickens, and Lindgren were popular in various professional spheres (among others, the secret service, journalism, and secretarial service) where they successfully applied their skills in shorthand writing.

Stenography was an integral part of a creative process of the authors who resorted to it (Dostoevsky, Krestovsky, Shaw, and Lindgren). It economized their time and efforts, saved them from poverty and from the terms of enslavement stipulated in the contracts between writers and publishers. It is mainly thanks to stenography that their works became renowned all over the world. If Charles Dickens called himself “the best writer-stenographer” of the 19th century, F. M. Dostoevsky became a great admirer of the “high art” of shorthand. He was the second writer in Russia (following V. Krestovsky), who applied shorthand writing in his literary work but the only one in the world literature for whom stenography became something more than just shorthand. This art modified and enriched the model of his creative process not for a while but for life, and it had an influence on the poetics of his novels and the story A Gentle Creature, and led to changes in the writer's private life. In the course of the years of the marriage of Dostoevsky and his stenographer Anna Snitkina, the author's artistic talent came to the peak. The largest and most important part of his literary writings was created in that period.

As a matter of fact, having become the “photograph” of live speech two centuries ago, shorthand made a revolution in the world, and became art and science for people. However, its history did not turn to be everlasting. In the 21st century, the art of shorthand writing is on the edge of disappearing and in deep crisis. The author of the paper touches upon the problem of revival of social interest in stenography and its maintenance as an art. Archival collections in Europe and Russia contain numerous documents written in short-hand by means of various shorthand systems. If humanity does not study shorthand and loses the ability to read verbatim records, the content of these documents will be hidden for us forever.

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Bevezetés: A dohányzás káros hatásai jelentős népegészségügyi kérdést jelentenek az egész világon. Célkitűzés: A Magyarország Átfogó Egészségvédelmi Szűrőprogramja 2010–2020–2030 (MÁESZ) keretében a 2010 és 2018 közötti időszakban végzett szűrések eredményeinek bemutatása és összevetése a nemzetközi adatokkal. Módszer: A 9 éves, folyamatos szűrés során 71 922 nő és 60 934 férfi adatait elemeztük a 18–80 év közötti populációban, és vizsgáltuk a napi rendszerességgel dohányzók előfordulását. Az adatok gyűjtése speciális szűrési adatlapok segítségével történt asszisztencia mellett. Eredmények: A 9 év átlagában a szűrésen megjelentek közül a férfiak 24,4%-a, a nők 24,2%-a rendszeresen dohányzik. A dohányzás prevalenciája 2012 és 2015 között átmeneti szignifikáns csökkenést mutatott, majd 2016-tól újra emelkedni kezdett. A hullámvölgy egybeesik a nemzeti dohányboltok nyitási időszakával. Férfiaknál a fiatal felnőtt korban (18–25 év) szignifikánsan nagyobb volt a dohányzók aránya, mint a nőknél. A későbbi életszakaszban a különbség kiegyenlítődött, sőt 46–55 év között a nőknél volt nagyobb, a dohányzás prevalenciája. A két nem között a dohányzási szokásokban eltérés áll fenn, ami a nőknél feltehetően a házassággal, anyasággal hozható összefüggésbe. 56 éves kor után mindkét nem esetében rohamosan csökkent a dohányzók aránya. A magyarországi dohányzásprevalencia-átlagok minden korcsoportban szignifikánsan meghaladják az európai és világátlagokat. A középkorú nőknél észlelt átmeneti emelkedést az európai felmérésnél is leírták. Következtetések: Hazánkban 2010-hez képest a dohányzók aránya csökkent, de a 2015 után észlelt újabb emelkedési hullám nem kedvező jelenség. Aggasztónak találjuk a dohányzó nők magas arányát. Orv Hetil. 2019; 160(52): 2047–2053.

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Psychology , 39 , 609 – 672 . Clinebell , H. J. , & Clinebell , Ch.H. ( 1970 ). The intimate marriage. Letöltve: 2010. 07. 25-én:

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Magyar Pszichológiai Szemle
Authors: Tamás Bereczkei, Petra Gyuris, Panna Köves, and László Bernáth

83 89 Rees, J. A., Harvey, P. H. (1991) The evolution of animal mating systems. In Reynolds, V., Kellett, J. (eds) Mating and Marriage. 1-45. Oxford University Press, Oxford

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Relation to Socialization, Journal of Marriage and the Family . Vol. 26, No. 3 (Aug., 1964), 318–326. Nárai Márta (2004): A civil szervezetek szerepe és jelentőségük. Educatio 13. évf. 4. Olsen Nancy

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.): Szerepváltozások. Jelentés a férfiak és nők helyzetéről. Tárki–SzCsM, Budapest, 30–46. H. Sas Judit (1988): Nőies nők és férfias férfiak . Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest. Tóth, Olga (1999): Marriage, Divorce and

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H.W. Ravn (Inventor) International Application Published under the Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT). WO 2008/080409 A1, 10 July 2008. A.I. Hamil, P.B. Marriage, and G. Friesen , Weed Sci. 25

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Pallua , Jelka 1996: Introducing a Second Wife — Matrimonial Aid in Cases of a Childless Marriage. International Journal of Anthropology 11, N. 1, January-March; Firenze, 35–40. Vince Pallua , Jelka 1994: Razmišljanja i dileme

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