Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used
to establish criteria for optimization of raw material selection, roasting
process, eating quality, visual appearance, and shelf-life extension of peanuts
[1-4]. DSC methods were developed as both predictive and analytical
tools to define process operating guidelines and to correlate with traditional
quality attributes of roasted peanuts [1-4].
Authors:Hebatallah M. Essam, Martin N. Saad, Eman S. Elzanfaly, and Sawsan M. Amer
under analysis of laboratory prepared mixtures was followed to determine the concentration of each drug in the dosage form. 3 Results and discussion 3.1 Method optimization For HPLC The main criteria for development of a successful HPLC method is its
Authors:Iisa Outola, Kenneth Inn, Robert Ford, Steve Markham, and Petri Outola
The environmental mobility/availability behavior of radionuclides in soils and sediments depends on their speciation. Experiments
have been carried out to develop a simple but robust radionuclide sequential extraction method for identification of radionuclide
partitioning in sediments and soils. The sequential extraction protocol was optimized for temperature, concentration of reagents
and reaction time. Optimum extraction conditions were chosen based on the release of 239,240Pu, 238U and stable elements. Results from the experiments with lake sediment (SRM 4354) are compared to the previous trials where
the sequential extraction protocol was optimized with the ocean sediment (SRM 4357). Based on these two trials the NIST standard
sequential extraction protocol is established for defined extraction settings for temperature, reagent concentration and time.
k0-NAA allows the simultaneous analysis of up-to 67 elements. Thek0 method is based on calculations using a special library instead of measuring standards. For an efficient use of the method,
the calculations and resulting raw data require optimized evaluation procedures. In this paper two efficient procedures for
nuclide identification and gamma interference correction are outlined. For a fast computation of the source-detector efficiency
and coincidence correction factors the matrix interpolation technique is introduced.
A ternary mobile phase for thin-layer chromatographic separation and identification of seven amino acids on microcrystalline cellulose, with ninhydrin as detection reagent, has been optimized by use of the experimental design software packages
. When the results from each product were compared the optimum mobile phase was found to be butanol-glacial acetic acid-water 60.14:18.77:21.09. The performance of this mobile phase was confirmed experimentally.
Semi-batch reactors are widely spread in the fine chemicals and specialties industry. The reason is that, compared to the
pure batch operation, the feed of at least one of the reactants provides an additional way of controlling the reaction course,
which represents a safety factor and increases the constancy of the product quality. Process temperature and feed rate can
be optimized to satisfy safety constraints, i.e. cooling capacity and allowable accumulation. An economically better way of
operating a semi-batch reactor is to adapt the feed rate to the allowed accumulation of reactants. An experimental method
based on calorimetry will be presented and illustrated by an example.
Authors:Boglárka Bagócsi, Zoltán Végh, and Katalin Ferenczi-Fodor
The acidic visualization methods most often used for steroids have been optimized and compared. Sulfuric acid at three different concentrations, phosphomolybdic acid, and phosphoric acid, with different heating temperatures for different times, have been examined as reagents for visualization of seven steroids separated by OPLC on HPTLC silica gel as adsorbent. For sulfuric and phosphoric acids the chromatograms were evaluated by inspection under long-wavelength UV light (366 nm). For phosphomolybdic acid the chromatograms were evaluated in daylight. It was found that visualization at higher temperatures for shorter periods usually results in greater sensitivity, although heating for longer periods at lower temperatures results in a more stable, robust visualization.
Authors:C. Lizette Del-Toro-Sánchez, S. Villaseñor-Alvarado, Florentina Zurita-Martínez, O. Castellanos-Hernández, Araceli Rodríguez-Sahagún, M. Isabel Torres-Morán, D. Rojas-Bravo, and M. Gutiérrez-Lomelí
Padmalatha, K., Prasad, M. N. V. (2006) Optimization of DNA isolation