The research focuses on the application of the Internet in three major areas: sales, purchasing and advertising, which, from a marketing point of view, are the most relevant activities in a company. It is argued that by the end of the 1990s in Hungary Internet-related business activities had become new and increasingly important areas of competition - and this observation holds even though the penetration of the Internet amongst the Hungarian population remains low, so that consumer fears are major obstacles to the more widespread use of this type of media. In this research, the “supply side” of business activities is investigated - that is, companies. In this article (which relies on a large-scale representative national survey carried out in 2000), there will first of all be provided an overview of the intensity of Internet usage among Hungarian companies in relation to marketing activity. Second, based on cutting-edge international literature, the possible factors in the model which determine Internet usage in companies' purchasing, sales and advertising activities will be outlined. Finally, there is an empirical testing of the given model on a representative sample of Hungarian companies.
Authors:Olaf Pollmann, Szilárd Podruzsik, and Orsolya Fehér
Current energy systems are in most instances not fully working sustainably. The provision and use of energy only consider limited resources, risk potential or financial constraints on a limited scale. Furthermore, the knowledge and benefits are only available for a minor group of the population or are outright neglected. The availability of different resources for energy purposes determines economic development, as well as the status of the society and the environment. The access to energy grids has an impact on socio-economic living standards of communities. This not fully developed system is causing climate change with all its related outcomes. This investigation takes into consideration different views on renewable energy systems — such as international discussions about biomass use for energy production, “fuel versus food”, biogas use — and attempts to compare major prospects of social acceptance of renewable energy in Europe and Africa. Can all obstacles to the use of renewable energy be so profound that the overall strategy of reducing anthropogenic causes of climate change be seriously affected?
The paper studies the relationship between key factors influencing senior entrepreneurship and the level of inclusiveness of seniors in entrepreneurial activity in Europe. The objective is to cluster countries with similar patterns in senior entrepreneurial inclusivity and to identify the factors leading to inclusive entrepreneurship of seniors and their social cohesion. The focus is on European countries which participated in Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) between 2001 and 2012, using GEM data as the main source for the analyses. Initially, the authors identify the key factors influencing entrepreneurial activity of seniors within Europe based upon data contained within the literature review. At the same time, utilizing the senior entrepreneurship inclusivity index, the authors measure the level of inclusiveness in each European country. Using the results of these analyses the authors subsequently implement a cluster analysis method to create clusters among European countries based upon the similarities in the relationship between the levels of senior entrepreneurship and entrepreneurial activity of the general population. This helps them identify countries with above average levels of senior entrepreneurship inclusivity. The results allow the authors to assess key similarities in clustered economies in terms of entrepreneurial culture and policies which have a major influence on senior entrepreneurship.
There is a growing debate in the literature about International New Ventures (INV). Survival of INVs – along with their growth and financial performance – seems to be an interesting phenomenon, but it has only been tackled in a small sample of studies. This study examines Hungarian INVs and some of their key characteristics in the years 2009–2014. The Hungarian Corporate Tax Database was used to analyse the entire population of Hungarian companies during that period. The database consists of 385,723 companies in 2009 and 422,500 companies in 2014, and comprises the whole Hungarian private sector. Of these companies, 6,547 can be identified as INVs in the period under analysis. In this paper, the survival, growth, and business performance characteristics of Hungarian INVs are examined. Hungarian INVs recorded an exceptionally high survival rate; after five business years, 70% of the INVs remained in business, but nearly half of them withdrew to the home market, which means that only 35% of the Hungarian INVs became Sustainable International New Ventures (SINVs). Hungarian SINVs employed on average about 25 employees, registered extremely high (around 75%) export intensity, had steadily growing earnings and equity (43.6% and 56.3% mean CAGR), showed a stable return on equity of about 10% after their first year in existence, and created added value of approximately 37,000 EUR per employee.
Authors:Andriy Danyliv, Milena Pavlova, Irena Gryga, and Wim Groot
Discrete choice experiments (DCE) and contingent valuation (CV) are often applied to value health care benefits. However, whether the two techniques yield converging willingness-to-pay (WTP) estimates is not studied well. This study aims to compare at a disaggregated level WTP estimates for physician services obtained from DCE and CV estimates. We study the consistency between the estimates and whether there are systematic differences between the two. The analysis is based on data from a household survey in Ukraine that includes 303 respondents and is taken to be representative of the Ukrainian population. The respondents participated in both DCE (16 choice tasks) and CV (4 valuation scenarios) in a form of payment scale followed by open-ended questions about the exact maximum WTP. We find that DCE produces higher WTP estimates than CV does, and the estimates are not consistent across the two techniques. A difference between the WTP estimates from DCE over those derived from the CV technique is found (i) for respondents who do not discriminate well between the profiles, and (ii) for an increase in the presented attribute level changes. The implications for achieving better convergence between the WTP estimates from the two techniques are discussed.
The paper argues that in some specific cases the central Government, which is usually required to choose in between whether to maintain (improve) the competitiveness of the economy or to reduce governmental responsibilities, is able to manage the state budget without limiting its choice to one of the two alternatives. At present, in Hungary the possibility is given to increase tax revenues and concurrently increase competitiveness. The main discussion of the article is centered around four practical proposals intended to support the above statement:
the necessity to create new jobs to (re)activate the inactive population
the tax morale of the taxpayer to fulfill his obligations depends primarily on the propensity of other taxpayers to pay taxes, and therefore the abolition of the secrecy of tax declarations would improve tax morale and thus propensity to pay taxes
corruption can be curtailed with strict restriction of cash payments
the owners of incomes realized on domestic economic operations should not (only) pay taxes in tax havens and offshore areas, but in Hungary
Being heavily energy dependent, it is not much of a surprise that Europe pays special attention to reducing the use of fossil fuels. Each one of the ten new member states is characterized by relatively low per capita energy consumption and relatively low energy efficiency, and the share of renewables in their energy mix tends to be low, too. The paper examines the problem when policy measures create a decrease in environmental capital instead of an increase. In this case it hardly seems justified to talk about environmental protection. The authors describe a case of a Hungarian rapeseed oil mill which would not be of too much interest on its own but given that almost all similar plants went bankrupt, there are some important lessons to learn from its survival. The enterprise the authors examined aimed at establishing a micro-regional network. They completed a brown-field development to establish a small plant on the premises of a former large agricultural cooperative. By partnering with the former employees and suppliers of the onetime cooperative, they enjoyed some benefits which all the other green-field businesses focusing on fuel production could not. The project improved food security, energy security and population retention as well.
Palestinian refugees have a special status under international law. Their de facto statelessness provides for the discretion of hosting nations in treating them. A significant number of displaced Palestinians and their descendants have arrived in Lebanon, which treats them as “campers” and “temporary guests”, thereby depriving them of the rights to education, to work, to buy properties; overall, to legally exist. The situation of Palestinian refugees has been subject of cultural and legal research extensively. We have attempted to add new results to the existing literature and findings: the cultural-economic aspects of the existence of semi-legal Palestinians through a time-dimension. Our paper summarizes the findings of a three-tier field-study. We started with the first wave of interviews and surveys in late 2014, then completed the second round in late 2015, and finally, finalized our research in March 2016, with several rounds of interviews. Though we also visited settlements and camps outside the capital, the overwhelming majority of our work concentrated on Beirut and the Palestinian camps therein. We observed both cultural similarities and differences between the migrants and the host population. The added value of the research is that it highlights the amplitude and pervasiveness of these impressions.
The paper analyzes European Union – Middle East and North Africa (EU-MENA) relations from the perspective of complex interdependencies. As a theoretical framework, it outlines the application of Barry Buzan’s Security Complex Theory on the Euro-Mediterranean (or EU-MENA) region-pair. This involves the provision of a general overview on the several sectors of interdependence between the two regions, namely the military, political, economic, societal and environmental sectors. The paper then turns towards the deeper elaboration of the economic sector and identifies it as the most potent sector for European activism, where the Union could work most effectively on building a long-term solution for the stabilization of the MENA. As conclusions, the paper argues for a deeper economic integration between the two regions, which would provide opportunities for the MENA’s population to be economically successful “at home”, therefore reducing not only the highly visible migration pressure on the EU, but also other security threats such as civil wars, organized crime and weapon proliferation.