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Tourism industry offers citizens travel services as well as provides employment opportunities and makes foreign exchange. Tourism industry for the global is similar to the economic development in a single country. Apparently, it plays a critical role in the future. With on-site questionnaire distribution and collection, customers of Caesar Park Hotel are sampled for the investigation. A total of 360 copies of questionnaires were distributed, and 257 valid copies were retrieved, with the retrieval rate of 71%. Each retrieved copy stands for a valid sample. SPSS is utilized for the data analysis and hypothesis test. The research results are concluded as below. 1. Moving Experience reveals partially positive effects on Efficiency in Operating Performance. 2. Moving Experience appears to have significantly positive effects on Growth in Operating Performance. 3. Moving Experience presents remarkably positive effects on Profitability in Operating Performance. 4. Population attributes show effects on the correlations between Moving Experience and Operating Performance.

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The research focuses on the application of the Internet in three major areas: sales, purchasing and advertising, which, from a marketing point of view, are the most relevant activities in a company. It is argued that by the end of the 1990s in Hungary Internet-related business activities had become new and increasingly important areas of competition - and this observation holds even though the penetration of the Internet amongst the Hungarian population remains low, so that consumer fears are major obstacles to the more widespread use of this type of media. In this research, the “supply side” of business activities is investigated - that is, companies. In this article (which relies on a large-scale representative national survey carried out in 2000), there will first of all be provided an overview of the intensity of Internet usage among Hungarian companies in relation to marketing activity. Second, based on cutting-edge international literature, the possible factors in the model which determine Internet usage in companies' purchasing, sales and advertising activities will be outlined. Finally, there is an empirical testing of the given model on a representative sample of Hungarian companies.

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The paper argues that in some specific cases the central Government, which is usually required to choose in between whether to maintain (improve) the competitiveness of the economy or to reduce governmental responsibilities, is able to manage the state budget without limiting its choice to one of the two alternatives. At present, in Hungary the possibility is given to increase tax revenues and concurrently increase competitiveness. The main discussion of the article is centered around four practical proposals intended to support the above statement:

  1. the necessity to create new jobs to (re)activate the inactive population the tax morale of the taxpayer to fulfill his obligations depends primarily on the propensity of other taxpayers to pay taxes, and therefore the abolition of the secrecy of tax declarations would improve tax morale and thus propensity to pay taxes corruption can be curtailed with strict restriction of cash payments the owners of incomes realized on domestic economic operations should not (only) pay taxes in tax havens and offshore areas, but in Hungary

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It is known that the simple Markov chain model overestimates the long run horizon mobility of the income distribution process. Dissolving the homogeneity assumption of the Markov model may lead to better forecasts. One generalisation of the Markov model, the Mover-Stayer model assumes heterogenous population: some units are moving according to a common Markov chain, but there are some (unknown) units that are not moving at all. They are called stayers.Based on the Frydman (1984) methodology if we compute both the Markov and Mover-Stayer models for Hungarian micro-regions income data, we find that the Mover-Stayer model fits better the regional relative income data than the simple Markov model. Using likelihood ratio test statistics we show that the difference is highly significant. The method is also applied for spatially conditioned data. The results show that the high persistence of relative income positions is a remarkable feature of the Hungarian economy in 1990–2003 both on a country-wide scale and local level. We also demonstrate that forecasts made on a less reliant model might lead to very ambiguous results.

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Palestinian refugees have a special status under international law. Their de facto statelessness provides for the discretion of hosting nations in treating them. A significant number of displaced Palestinians and their descendants have arrived in Lebanon, which treats them as “campers” and “temporary guests”, thereby depriving them of the rights to education, to work, to buy properties; overall, to legally exist. The situation of Palestinian refugees has been subject of cultural and legal research extensively. We have attempted to add new results to the existing literature and findings: the cultural-economic aspects of the existence of semi-legal Palestinians through a time-dimension. Our paper summarizes the findings of a three-tier field-study. We started with the first wave of interviews and surveys in late 2014, then completed the second round in late 2015, and finally, finalized our research in March 2016, with several rounds of interviews. Though we also visited settlements and camps outside the capital, the overwhelming majority of our work concentrated on Beirut and the Palestinian camps therein. We observed both cultural similarities and differences between the migrants and the host population. The added value of the research is that it highlights the amplitude and pervasiveness of these impressions.

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Current energy systems are in most instances not fully working sustainably. The provision and use of energy only consider limited resources, risk potential or financial constraints on a limited scale. Furthermore, the knowledge and benefits are only available for a minor group of the population or are outright neglected. The availability of different resources for energy purposes determines economic development, as well as the status of the society and the environment. The access to energy grids has an impact on socio-economic living standards of communities. This not fully developed system is causing climate change with all its related outcomes. This investigation takes into consideration different views on renewable energy systems — such as international discussions about biomass use for energy production, “fuel versus food”, biogas use — and attempts to compare major prospects of social acceptance of renewable energy in Europe and Africa. Can all obstacles to the use of renewable energy be so profound that the overall strategy of reducing anthropogenic causes of climate change be seriously affected?

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The paper studies the relationship between key factors influencing senior entrepreneurship and the level of inclusiveness of seniors in entrepreneurial activity in Europe. The objective is to cluster countries with similar patterns in senior entrepreneurial inclusivity and to identify the factors leading to inclusive entrepreneurship of seniors and their social cohesion. The focus is on European countries which participated in Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) between 2001 and 2012, using GEM data as the main source for the analyses. Initially, the authors identify the key factors influencing entrepreneurial activity of seniors within Europe based upon data contained within the literature review. At the same time, utilizing the senior entrepreneurship inclusivity index, the authors measure the level of inclusiveness in each European country. Using the results of these analyses the authors subsequently implement a cluster analysis method to create clusters among European countries based upon the similarities in the relationship between the levels of senior entrepreneurship and entrepreneurial activity of the general population. This helps them identify countries with above average levels of senior entrepreneurship inclusivity. The results allow the authors to assess key similarities in clustered economies in terms of entrepreneurial culture and policies which have a major influence on senior entrepreneurship.

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Discrete choice experiments (DCE) and contingent valuation (CV) are often applied to value health care benefits. However, whether the two techniques yield converging willingness-to-pay (WTP) estimates is not studied well. This study aims to compare at a disaggregated level WTP estimates for physician services obtained from DCE and CV estimates. We study the consistency between the estimates and whether there are systematic differences between the two. The analysis is based on data from a household survey in Ukraine that includes 303 respondents and is taken to be representative of the Ukrainian population. The respondents participated in both DCE (16 choice tasks) and CV (4 valuation scenarios) in a form of payment scale followed by open-ended questions about the exact maximum WTP. We find that DCE produces higher WTP estimates than CV does, and the estimates are not consistent across the two techniques. A difference between the WTP estimates from DCE over those derived from the CV technique is found (i) for respondents who do not discriminate well between the profiles, and (ii) for an increase in the presented attribute level changes. The implications for achieving better convergence between the WTP estimates from the two techniques are discussed.

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Europe and its southern neighbors

Interdependence, security and economic development in contemporary EU-MENA relations

Society and Economy
Author: Daniel Gugan

The paper analyzes European Union – Middle East and North Africa (EU-MENA) relations from the perspective of complex interdependencies. As a theoretical framework, it outlines the application of Barry Buzan’s Security Complex Theory on the Euro-Mediterranean (or EU-MENA) region-pair. This involves the provision of a general overview on the several sectors of interdependence between the two regions, namely the military, political, economic, societal and environmental sectors. The paper then turns towards the deeper elaboration of the economic sector and identifies it as the most potent sector for European activism, where the Union could work most effectively on building a long-term solution for the stabilization of the MENA. As conclusions, the paper argues for a deeper economic integration between the two regions, which would provide opportunities for the MENA’s population to be economically successful “at home”, therefore reducing not only the highly visible migration pressure on the EU, but also other security threats such as civil wars, organized crime and weapon proliferation.

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Being heavily energy dependent, it is not much of a surprise that Europe pays special attention to reducing the use of fossil fuels. Each one of the ten new member states is characterized by relatively low per capita energy consumption and relatively low energy efficiency, and the share of renewables in their energy mix tends to be low, too. The paper examines the problem when policy measures create a decrease in environmental capital instead of an increase. In this case it hardly seems justified to talk about environmental protection. The authors describe a case of a Hungarian rapeseed oil mill which would not be of too much interest on its own but given that almost all similar plants went bankrupt, there are some important lessons to learn from its survival. The enterprise the authors examined aimed at establishing a micro-regional network. They completed a brown-field development to establish a small plant on the premises of a former large agricultural cooperative. By partnering with the former employees and suppliers of the onetime cooperative, they enjoyed some benefits which all the other green-field businesses focusing on fuel production could not. The project improved food security, energy security and population retention as well.

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