In 1999 investigation, the needles of Sabina chinesis L. from 11 hot spot tourist cities extending over China were collected as biomonitors for evaluation of atmospheric elemental differences in those cities. Thirty five elements were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The experimental data reflected the environmental alteration in the cities that have different geographical position, population burden and industrialized level. Eventually by using the data processed by factor analysis (FA) and subsequent cluster analysis (CA), the cities were grouped into six sorts of the urban atmospheric deposition with corresponding elements.
Authors:R. C. Eerlingen, H. Jacobs, H. Van Win, and J. A. Delcour
Gelatinisation temperatures as a function of moisture content were determined for potato starch. The native starch was then hydrothermally treated at a temperature 3% (Kelvin degrees) below the gelatinisation peak temperature and at moisture levels varying from 20 to 67% (by weight). Gelatinisation temperatures, temperature ranges and enthalpy values were affected for all treated samples. However, two sample populations could be distinguished: those samples treated under ‘limited’ moisture conditions and other samples treated in the presence of ‘extragranular’ moisture. A two-step hydrothermal treatment further increased the gelatinisation temperature, but the effect of the second step was small in comparison to that of the first.
Authors:Tran Thiep, Truong An, Nguyen Khai, Nguyen Vinh, Phan Cuong, I. Gangrski, I. Penhionzkevich, G. Mishinski, and V. Zemenhik
The ratio of the probabilities of population of the isomeric and ground states, so called the isomeric ratio is closely connected
to the angular momentum of the initial fission fragments that is dissipated at the later stages of gamma ray cascade. This
ratio also provides important information on the nuclear level structure as well as the nuclear reaction mechanism involved.
In this work, the isomeric ratio in fission fragment 135Xe from photofission of 233U induced by 23.5 MeV bremsstrahlung has been determined by the method that uses inert gaseous flow. The results have been
discussed and compared with that of other authors.
This study aims to investigate whether known carcinogenic chemical elements in atmospheric deposition might be associated
with child mortality due to leukemia in the Portuguese population. A Bayesian hierarchical model was used to explore the association
between lichen biomonitoring measurements of four elements—As, Hg, Ni, Pb—and childhood leukemia death counts taken at small
administrative units. This geographical epidemiological study found a non-significant positive association between the risk
of childhood leukemia and levels of arsenic, mercury and lead, and a non-significant negative association between the disease
and the level of nickel. Lead seems to show a weaker association with childhood leukemia than arsenic and mercury.
Authors:N. Silva, J. Macacini, H. Fukuma, and E. Fenandes
Phosphoric acid is generally obtained from an aqueous process starting with the reaction between phosphate rock and sulphuric
acid. Due to their chemical similarity, uranium is usually associated with phosphate rock which during chemical processing
is partitioned to phosphoric acid. Uranium determination in this matrix is a very important task because of its ingestion
it could lead to radiological impact on the population. Therefore, a procedure was developed using an initial precipitation
with calcium hydroxide and evaporation, followed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The procedure was applied
to analyse fourteen uranium enriched phosphoric acid samples.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the concentrations of essential and toxic elements in hair of children in Tanzania
in order to assess their nutritional status. 141 samples of hair from boys and girls living in Tanzania were analyzed using
instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The mean concentration levels of Zn and Cu were lower whilst those of other
elements were in the same range as the hair elemental concentrations reported in the literature. The lower concentrations
of Zn might be related to the diet of mainly cereals with low animal proteins consumed by most of the Tanzanian population.
Authors:J. Kvicala, V. Zamrazil, J. Nemecek, and J. Jiranek
To estimate the status of selenium in seniors of the South Bohemia region, Czech Republic, 481 serum samples from seniors
living in 17 Asylum Houses for seniors in the age between 60 and 99 years were obtained. Samples were analyzed by instrumental
neutron activation analysis with concurrent analysis of 4 reference materials for quality assurance. Average concentration
of serum Se, arithmetic means in individual Asylum Houses, frequency distribution of serum Se concentrations as well as five
years running monitoring of serum Se concentrations of one group of seniors proved selenium deficiency of the elderly population
of the region South Bohemia.
Authors:J. Morris, R. Ngwenyama, J. Guthrie, J. Brockman, V. Spate, and J. Robertson
Instrumental neutron activation analysis is routinely used at the MURR to quantify selenium in prospectively-collected biologic
markers including blood serum and toenails. These specimens are typically collected from well-defined cohort populations participating
in investigations assessing selenium intake and incidence of chronic disease endpoints. These epidemiological investigations,
whether observational (case-control) or clinical (intervention), typically generate thousands of samples. The purpose of this
paper is to assess, through evaluation of quality control results, if the achievable accuracy and precision in the measurement
of selenium using NAA is adequate to determine a relative risk of 1.2 at high confidence in epidemiological studies.
The intake of some “newer” trace elements via the daily diet by Iranian population groups was determined. The total mixed
diets were prepared on the basis of dietary recording. Aluminium and nickel have been measured via atomic absorption spectrometry,
vanadium and tin via radiochemical neutron activation analysis, and scandium via instrumental neutron activation analysis.
The results for the Iranian diets are discussed and compared with corresponding data from other countries. The project has
been performed in the frame of a co-ordinated research project of the International Atomic Energy Agency with participants
from various countries.
We have collected sixteen total diet samples from two socioeconomic groups in Turkey by duplicate portion techniques. Samples
were homogenized with titanium-blade homogenizer, freeze dried and analyzed for their minor and trace elements mostly by neutron
activation analysis. Bread and flour samples were also collected from the same regions and analyzed similarly by instrumental
neutron activation analysis. We have determined concentrations of more than 25 elements in total diets, bread and flour, and
fiber and phytate in total diets. We have determined daily dietary intakes of these population groups, probable source of
elements through correlation coefficients, and enrichment factor calculations.