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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: S. Silva, M. Conceiçăo, A. Souza, S. Prasad, M. Silva, V. Fernandes, A. Araújo, and F. Sinfrônio

Abstract  

The powder and the bran of algaroba pods, submitted to drying temperatures of 55, 65, 75, 85, 95 and 105C, were studied by conventional and thermogravimetric methods. The dynamic thermogravimetric curves of the samples indicated the following thermal stability order: 105>55>65>95>85>75C. The powder and the bran of algaroba pods, dried at 55C, presented protein content higher and isothermal thermogravimetric profiles comparable. The calorimetric curves of samples, dried at 55C, indicated the gelatinization of starch.

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Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Authors: A. Belokobylsky, E. Ginturi, N. Kuchava, E. Kirkesali, L. Mosulishvili, M. Frontasyeva, S. Pavlov, and N. Aksenova

Abstract  

The dynamics of accumulation of Se(IV) and Cr(III) in Spirulina platensis (S. platensis) cells was studied using epithermal neutron activation analysis. The effect of Se(IV) and Cr(III) apart and together on growth and morphology of S. platensis cells is discussed. It was established that accumulation of Cr is more intensive than that of Se. As follows from the results obtained, the simultaneous loading of Se and Cr affects the biomass growth dynamics of S. platensis without changing its morphology and protein content. This finding serves the ground for developing the pharmaceuticals based on Se and Cr enriched biomass.

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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: J. Amorim, S. Eliziário, D. Gouveia, A. Simőes, J. Santos, M. Conceiçăo, A. Souza, and M. Trindade

Abstract  

The thermogravimetry (TG) is a technique used in the quality control of foods. In this work the moisture and ash contents in the rice and by-products (bran and husk), the thermal stability and the gelatinization process by conventional, thermogravimetric and calorimetric methods were studied. The moisture and ash contents obtained by TG and conventional methods did not present significant differences. The rice presented higher starch content, while the bran presented higher protein content. The thermogravimetric data presented the following thermal stability order: rice>bran>husk. The calorimetric curves indicated the gelatinization of the starch. The kinetic parameters were compatible.

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Chemical (N' methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine) mutagenesis and penicillin selection were utilised to isolate a phenotypically altered mutant of cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. This mutant (ntm60A) exhibited enhanced protein content and nitrogen fixing potential but lower amount of chlorophyll and nitrate reductase activity. A remarkable and significant increase was observed in the total phycobiliprotein content of the mutant, especially in relation to the amount of phycoerythrin. This strain can be exploited as a rich source of natural coloring agent such as phycobilins in the bioindustry.

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The yield, protein and starch content of Martonvásár maize hybrids belonging to different FAO groups were examined in experiments involving early, optimal and late sowing dates in two different years (drought — 2007, favourable water supplies — 2008) on a calcareous chernozem soil with loam texture at the Látókép Experimental Station of the Centre of Agricultural Sciences and Engineering, University of Debrecen.Sowing date had a significant effect on maize grain yield in the dry year. The grain yields of hybrids with longer growing periods were significantly higher than those with shorter growing periods in both years, but they reacted sensitively to the change in sowing date in the dry year. Due to the rainfall distribution in the growing season, sowing date did not modify the performance of the hybrids in the year with favourable water supplies. Sowing date had a significant effect on the grain protein content in the dry year, with significantly higher values after late sowing than after early or optimal sowing. Averaged over the sowing dates, the protein content of the FAO 200 hybrid was significantly higher in both years than that of hybrids in other FAO groups. In the dry year, the greatest difference in protein content could be observed between the early and late sowing dates for hybrids in all four FAO groups. A negative correlation was found between yield and protein content. Sowing date significantly increased the starch content of maize in the favourable year, with a significant difference between early and late sowing dates.In the dry year higher starch contents were recorded for all the hybrids and for all the sowing dates than in the favourable year. In the dry year, sowing date only caused a significant difference in the starch content in the case of FAO 200 sown at optimal and late sowing dates. In the favourable year, a significant difference was only obtained for the starch content of the FAO 400 hybrid sown at early and late sowing dates. Satisfactory quality can only be achieved if suitable genotypes are grown with appropriate technologies.

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Cereal Research Communications
Authors: Daniela Horvat, Zdenko Loncaric, Vladimir Vukadinovic, Georg Drezner, Blazenka Bertic, and Kresimir Dvojković

The effect of the N, P and K fertilisation on yield and quality parameters of cultivar Žitarka during two growing seasons (2002/03 and 2003/04) was studied. Fertilization increased yield, although only treatment with 200 kg N ha −1 yielded significantly higher than treatments with 80 kg N ha −1 . Protein content increased significantly (P<0.001) with the application of 80 kg N ha −1 , 120 kg N ha −1 and 160 kg N ha −1 . The highest N applications with 200 kg N ha −1 and 240 kg N ha −1 increased protein content on the same level as with 160 kg N ha −1 . Wet gluten and sedimentation value were also significantly (P<0.001) affected by N fertilizer treatments. Although increment of N fertilization increased values of these quality parameters, 120 kg N ha −1 , 160 kg N ha −1 and 200 kg N ha −1 treatments showed similar effect, while treatment with 240 kg N ha −1 resulted with significantly higher values. Gluten index increased only with applying 80 kg N ha −1 while the highest N levels (200 kg N ha −1 and 240 kg N ha −1 ) showed dramatically gluten weakening. Considering grain hardness only treatment with 80 kg N ha −1 had significant (P<0.001) influence. Simultaneously, P and K did not affect grain yield and quality, neither comparing PK to controle, or N 2 P 1 K 1 to N 2 P 2 K 2 .

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Flour from grains originating from plants infected artificially with cereal aphids were analyzed for glutenin and gliadin and total protein content, using Size Exclusion HPLC. Wheat plants were caged at the beginning of stem elongation. Cages were treated with 0.1 % methyl parathion. One week later, the caged plants were artificially infected with 5 aptera individuals of Metopolophium dirhodum, Diuraphis noxia, Sitobion avenae and Rhopalosiphum padi . It was found that aphid infection had significant effect on the glutenin and gliadin content, the total protein content and the gliadin/glutenin ratio. Both the glutenin and gliadin content was significantly higher in the seeds harvested from aphid infected plants. However, the gliadin/glutenin ratio was significantly lower in wheat flour prepared from aphid infected plants than in those from uninfected control. The most significant decrease in gliadin/glutenin ratio was caused by M. dirhodum, D. noxia, S. avenae infection followed by R. padi at high-abundance. As the gliadin/glutenin ratio was significantly lower in flours made from aphid infected wheat seeds, it may be suggested, that aphid feeding results in decreased bread making quality of wheat flour.

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Tropospheric ozone (O3) adversely affects growth and productivity of crops and also influences crop—pathogen interactions. Adverse effects of O3 on crops can be mitigated by antioxidants application. In the present study through lab and field experiments impact of O3 and antioxidants treatment to wheat was assessed on growth of Bipolaris sorokiniana (BS-75 strain) pathogen responsible for Spot blotch disease, pathogenesis related (PR) proteins and chitinase content. Results showed that growth of Bipolaris was significantly higher in elevated ozone (EO3) exposed plants as compared to control plants. Antioxidants — ascorbic acid (AA), tagetes extract (T) and quercetin (Q) application on culture media and wheat plants, respectively, retarded the growth of Bipolaris sorokiniana. Among the three antioxidants minimum growth of Bipolaris was observed in AA-treated plants as compared to control plants. Reduction in chitinase activity and PR proteins content due to EO3 treatment in wheat plants was 18% and 78%, respectively, as compared to control plants. Increase in chitinase activity and PR proteins content due to antioxidants treatment in wheat plants was 45% and 60%, respectively, as compared to control plants.

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The objective of the present investigation was to examine the relationships between agronomical behavior and grain quality along ten cycles of a recurrent selection program performed under rainfed condition. Twenty-four lines, four for each one of the 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 cycles of recurrent selection, were evaluated for two consecutive years (2011 and 2012). The experimental lines were evaluated under conventional (CT) and no tillage (NT) systems. Grain yield and grain weight were determined and harvest index and grain number estimated. Flour protein content, sodium dodecyl sulphate sedimentation (IS-SDS) and lactic acid SRC (LASRC) were considered as end-use quality predictive tests. The Spearman correlation coefficient was used to measure the relationships among yield, its components and grain quality parameters. Within the context of CT, flour protein content was negatively associated with all the agronomic variables. The IS-SDS has a negative association with the grain weight; meanwhile, LASRC associated positively with all the agronomic variables. When wheat was grown in NT, the relationship between IS-SDS and harvest index, like LASRC with all agronomic traits, was positive. Confining the discussion to the CT results, after ten cycles of recurrent selection the highest grain yield achieved was accompanied by a decrease in protein percentage. However, the decrease in the percentage of protein in more advanced selection cycles was offset by an improvement of its quality.

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Spores of four Frankia strains, the nitrogen-fixing actinomycete, were exposed to short wavelength UV-C radiation of 254 nm at 1 lux cm2 (0.24 mw cm2 of energy) for 10 min. The used strains were HFP020203, UGL020604, UGL020602q and ORS021001. Exposure to UV was followed by reactivation with visible white light at 327.4 lux cm2 for the same period of time. Spore germination percentage, spore protein content, and cell growth were damaged by this treatment. The lower and higher percentages of reduction in spore germination were 32 and 63% and, for the same strains, the recovery by white light was 7.2 and 37%. The lower percentages of UV damage and subsequent low recovery were recorded for strain ORS021001 that is considered more resistant to UV than the other strains. The higher percentages were recorded for strain HFP020203 that is more sensitive to UV but having more efficient repairing mechanisms. All the tested strains showed repairing activity induced by white light as indicated from the increase in their spore germination, protein content and almost restoring the normal shape of Frankia hyphae, after being damaged, as revealed by scanning electron microscope. This is the first evidence that photo-repairing systems are present in Frankia strains although there are variations in their response to both UV-C and photoreactivation by white light.

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