Scientific observers as well politicians have noted for a long time that European integration is a process led by the elites but supported much less enthusiastically by the public at large. The first part of this paper documents systematically and for the first time how pervasive the split between elites and citizens has become over the last decades; the rejection of the “Constitution for Europe” by clear majorities of the French and Dutch voters in 2005 was only the last and most spectacular event in this regard. The paper proposes two theses which help to explain this split: (1) European integration has brought and still brings many advantages to the powerful elites involved, the political, economic and new “Eurocratic” elites; (2) for the population at large, the gains from integration are much less obvious; significant subsections of the populations in different EU member countries have been affected negatively by integration. These theses are documented by empirical evidence from many different sources: Data about the origins, careers and privileges of European politicians and bureaucrats; historical and contemporary data about the role of economic interests and the successful strategies of economic elites concerning integration; statistical data about the socioeconomic development of the EU and “Euroland” compared to other large advanced countries and macro-regions of the world; and survey data about the perceptions and evaluations of European integration both among the elites and the populations in the different member states.
Authors:Lutz Bornmann, Christophe Weymuth, and Hans-Dieter Daniel
Using the data of a comprehensive evaluation study on the peer review process of Angewandte Chemie International Edition (AC-IE), we examined in this study the way in which referees’ comments differ on manuscripts rejected at AC-IE and later
published in either a low-impact journal (Tetrahedron Letters, n = 54) or a high-impact journal (Journal of the American Chemical Society, n = 42). For this purpose, a content analysis was performed of comments which led to the rejection of the manuscripts at AC-IE.
For the content analysis, a classification scheme with thematic areas developed by Bornmann et al. (<cite>2008</cite>) was used. As the results of the analysis demonstrate, a large number of negative comments from referees in the areas “Relevance
of contribution” and “Design/Conception” are clear signs that a manuscript rejected at AC-IE will not be published later in
a high-impact journal. The number of negative statements in the areas “Writing/Presentation,” “Discussion of results,” “Method/Statistics,”
and “Reference to the literature and documentation,” on the other hand, had no statistically significant influence on the
probability that a rejected manuscript would later be published in a low- or high-impact journal. The results of this study
have various implications for authors, journal editors and referees.
Authors:A. A. Marchetti, T. A. Brown, C. C. Cox, T. F. Hamilton, and R. E. Martinelli
Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is a sensitive and robust technique typically applied to the quantification of long-lived radioisotopes in samples too small to be decay-counted. AMS is characterized by a high rejection of interferences and a low susceptibility to matrix components, which reduce the demands on sample preparation chemistry. At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (CAMS), we have developed an AMS capability for the measurement of actinide concentrations and isotopic ratios. To date, this capability has been primarily devoted to the measurement of 239Pu and 240Pu in bioassay and environmental samples including soils, sediments, waters, and human urine. For these analyses, a known amount of 242Pu is added to the samples as a reference isotope for normalization. Measurements of standard and intercomparison samples have shown that quantification is accurate and precise from at least 106 to 1011 atoms/sample. Recently, the ratios of 240Pu, 241Pu, 242Pu, and +Pu to intrinsic 239Pu have been successfully measured in soil samples from nuclear test sites. In addition, initial measurements of U and Np isotopes have yielded results consistent with the Pu measurements with respect to sensitivity, accuracy, precision, and linear range.
At the time when archaeology emerged as a distinct academic discipline, references to Darwin's notions of descent with modification and natural selection were relatively common, especially amongst Scandinavian scholars. These references were, at times, remarkably explicit and became more regular following the publication of Darwin's key works in translation. Drawing on biographical and archival sources as well as on an analysis of the contemporaneous reception of these ideas this papers attempts to tease out some of the theoretical, methodological, and sociological factors that led, ultimately, to a more or less wholesale rejection of Darwinism in archaeology in the middle part of the 20th century. Whilst 19th-century scholars were trained in a range of disciplines and so able to work interdisciplinarily with ease, the increasing fragmentation of domains of enquiry and the parallel and rapid increase in the volume of scientific knowledge resulted in barriers to the integration of the social and evolutionary sciences. There remains much confusion about the remit and scope of an evolutionary analysis of material culture change. An undue focus on natural selection and a continued adherence to a typological view of material culture are particular barriers to a better and broader integration of evolutionary theory and archaeology. This historical analysis is presented in the hope of clearing up some of these misunderstandings and to contribute to a sharper definition of evolutionary archaeology.
Authors:Alex Mesoudi, Djuke Veldhuis, and Robert A. Foley
At the inception of the social sciences in the late 19th century, early psychologists, anthropologists, archaeologists and sociologists frequently proposed evolutionary explanations for social phenomena. Yet by the mid-20th century Darwin's theory had virtually disappeared from the social sciences, and most social scientists continue to reject evolutionary approaches within their disciplines. This special issue of the Journal of Evolutionary Psychology contains six papers each of which addresses the question of why social scientists rejected evolution, and why they still do. Three broad reasons are identified by our contributors. First, many social scientists past and present hold distorted views of evolution leading to, in our view, an unfounded rejection of evolutionary theory. This distortion might be addressed by improved education and communication of evolutionary theory. Second, many past applications of evolutionary theory to social phenomena have been inadequate for explaining the kinds of phenomena that social scientists are most interested in, such as rapid cultural change and the emergence of large-scale cooperative institutions. This situation is changing as modern Darwinian approaches incorporate behavioural flexibility, group-level explanations and culture. Finally, certain strands of the social sciences have rejected the scientific method in general, instead adopting non-scientific perspectives such as social constructionism. While this is a broader epistemological issue, the application of evolutionary methods to social phenomena may provide the best and most direct support for the value of the scientific method.
In our investigations the membrane filtration of quality wines (Tokaji Hárslevelű and Egri Bikavér) — based on diafiltration principles, applying nanofiltration membranes — has been studied. For the diafiltration experiments a relatively dense nanofiltration membrane NF 45 has been used, while for simple wine concentrations a membrane developed for organic components rejection NF200 has been investigated. The mixture of the retarded wine compounds was considered the main product of the process. The permeate that crossed the membrane was handled as the by product. Separated wine samples and the original wines have been subjected to gas chromatographic analysis: according to the results the partition of the main components and aroma compounds of the samples was approximately equal between the main and by-product. Membrane separation has been applied in accordance with a “prelaborated” experimental plan, when completing it the effect of operational parameters on the effectiveness of the process has been evaluated and analysed. By mathematical modelling of the phenomenon empirical and quasiempirical relations were set up, and solutions for the practical realization of the procedure were searched for. Our new model describes the filtration efficiency with our new index in the function of the operational parameters’ influence. The significance of the relation is, that the knowledge of the wine-constants might promote the expedient choice of the membrane, which is a primary aspect in planning and creating the process optimal.
Cytomegalovirus infection is a major infectious complication of transplant recipients, causing significant morbidity and mortality. It is possible to treat this infection effectively only if we know the direct and indirect effects of it, if we take the risk-factors into account, and use sensitive and reliable diagnostic methods for early establishment of diagnosis. In order to avoid severe CMV-infection, it is possible to administer prophylactic therapy. For prophylaxis planning it is important to know the CMV-seroprevalence of Hungarian population and its characteristics. Our results have shown that the seroprevalence of Hungarian population is high: 86%. The primary CMV-infection in Hungary occurs in childhood or in early adulthood, till age of 20 years the seroprevalence is 72%. CMV-seronegative recipients should be transplanted using organs of seronegative donors, however, the chance obtaining the graft from a CMV-seronegative donor was shown to be 2% only. Since such seromatching is rear, we have to know that the constellation of negative recipient and positive donor is the highest risk-factor for developing severe primary CMV-infection. While investigating data of 147 CMV-seronegative recipients from high-risk group it has been established that CMV-infection prophylaxis is essential for high risk patients in the early post-transplant period of 3 months, the administration of any of investigated prophylactic protocols is advantageous in comparing with prophylaxis free management of those patients (P=0.006). The study has also proven that monoprophylaxis with ganciclovir or valganciclovir is the most effective and cost-effective procedure as compared to other protocols (P=0.006). It is important to take into consideration that in prophylactic groups the “late-onset” CMV-infection occurred often (25.4%), and that there were no signs of seroconversion after the primary CMV-infection in 14% of the patients. For the first time it has been found and proven that the female sex is a risk factor for CMV-infection (P=0.0006). Genetic variability influences susceptibility to infectious diseases and HLA-molecules are critical for viral antigen uptaking, processing and presenting. Our data of 129 of high-risk patients suggest that recipients positive for HLA-DQ3 are more susceptible to CMV-infection than a comparable group of patients negative for this HLA-type. This result was not due to rejection and/or treatment for rejection and was not influenced by induction therapy or number of HLA-mismatches. The multivariate Cox Regression analysis has shown that HLA-DQ3 positivity is an independent predictor of primary CMV-infection in CMV-seronegative recipients with seropositive donor grafts (P=0.001). The cognition of HLA-DQ3 is useful in the prediction of acute CMV-infection in high-risk patients, and should influence the planning of the patients' management.
Az emberi megbetegedések kezelésére kifejlesztett újszerű gyógymódok gyakorlati bevezetése nem egyszerű feladat. Egyrészt a modern terápiák számos kritériumnak kell hogy megfeleljenek, másrészt gyakorta szélsőséges várakozásokat kell kielégíteniük; a betegek és terapeuták euforikus hangulatát a kezdeti nehézségeket követően könnyen válthatja az új gyógymód iránti mély pesszimizmus. Ez alól a daganatok vírusok segítségével történő gyógyításának ötlete sem kivétel. Az első próbálkozásokat követően tapasztalt nehézségek, komplikációk és a tökéletes gyógyhatás elmaradása rövid időn belül az onkolitikus vírusterápia elvetéséhez vezetett. Az elmúlt évtizedek molekuláris és sejtbiológiai felfedezéseinek köszönhetően az onkolitikus vírusterápia újra reflektorfénybe került, melyet a világ több pontján jelenleg is zajló klinikai próbák követtek. A jelen összefoglaló célja az onkolitikus vírusterápia jelenlegi helyzetének bemutatása, illetve az eddigi eredmények összefoglalása.
Authors:Beáta Bodócsi, István Koncz, Zsigmond Hum, Orsolya Serfőző, József Pap-Szekeres, and István Szabó
A mellkasi fájdalom igen gyakori panasz a sürgősségi osztályon megjelent betegek
körében. A sürgősségi orvosok fontos feladata kizárni az életet veszélyeztető
kórképeket: akut coronariaszindróma, pulmonalis embolisatio, mellkasi
aortadissectio. A szerzők 7 órája fennálló tompa mellkasi fájdalom miatt
jelentkező beteg kórtörténetét ismertetik. A diagnosztikus algoritmusoknak
megfelelően EKG, vérvétel, mellkasröntgen, majd ezek után mellkasi
komputertomográfiás angiográfia történt. Az akut coronariaszindróma, pulmonalis
embolisatio, valamint a mellkasi aorta dissectiója kizárásra kerültek, azonban a
CT-képen mellékleletként hatalmas méretű rekeszsérv ábrázolódott. A betegnél
sürgős műtét történt, amely után a beteg panaszmentesen, gyógyultan távozott a
kórházból. A szerzők kiemelik, hogy a diagnosztikus algoritmusok a gyakori,
potenciálisan halálos betegségek megerősítését vagy kizárását célozzák meg,
elsősorban mellkasi panaszok esetén. Nem szabad azonban szem elől téveszteni,
hogy a mellkasi fájdalomnak vannak ritkább okai, amelyek a társszakmák
bevonását, multidiszciplináris gondolkodásmódot tesznek szükségessé. Orv.
Hetil., 2016, 157(36), 1445–1448.