Authors:Sujin Bae, Doug Hyun Han, Jaebum Jung, Ki Chun Nam, and Perry F. Renshaw
; Monaghan, 2009 ). It is a modified form of gambling that provides rapid feedback and easy access to a number of betting options ( Gainsbury et al., 2015 ; Monaghan, 2009 ). Given the similarities in clinical symptoms between excessive use of both Internet
Authors:Eduardo Ekman Schenberg, Maria Angélica de Castro Comis, João Felipe Morel Alexandre, Luís Fernando Tófoli, Bruno Daniel Rasmussen Chaves, and Dartiu Xavier da Silveira
, the excerpts above indicate that the narratives of ibogaine’s experiences frequently have similarities to dream reports. Thus, the suggestion that the subjective experience induced by ibogaine has oneirogen or oneiric properties, i
Authors:Tagrid Leménager, Sabine Hoffmann, Julia Dieter, Iris Reinhard, Karl Mann, and Falk Kiefer
possibly mirrors the transition between healthy and addicted Internet use. Including a group of problematic Internet users might contribute to clarifying whether there are similarities between problematic and addicted Internet users or whether problematic
Index of Factor Similarity . Methodology , 2 ( 2 ), 57 – 64 . DOI 10.1027/1614-18188.8.131.52 . Luyckx , K. , Soenens , B. , Vansteenkiste , M. , Groossens , L. , & Berzonsky , M. D. ( 2007 ). Parental psychological control and dimension of
According to an influential theory in cultural evolution, within-group similarity of culture is explained by a human ‘conformist-bias’, which is a hypothesized evolved predisposition to preferentially follow a member of the majority when acquiring ideas and behaviours. However, this notion has little support from social psychological research. In fact, a major theory in social psychology (Latané and Wolf (1981) argues for what is in effect a ‘nonconformist-bias’: by analogy to standard psychophysics they predict minority sources of influence to have relatively greater impact than majority sources. Here we present a new mathematical model and an experiment on social influence, both specifically designed to test these competing predictions. The results are in line with nonconformism. Finally, we discuss within-group similarity and suggest that it is not a general phenomenon but must be studied trait by trait.
Authors:Anikó Nagy, Judit Molnár, Katalin Balázs, and Petra Vágyi
Kutatásunkban a szülői bánásmód párválasztásra gyakorolt hatását vizsgáltuk. A Young-féle sémafókuszú elméletre alapozva a frusztrálódott fejlődési alapszükségletek oldaláról közelítettük meg a kérdést, így a pár tagjainak maladaptív sématartományai közötti specifikus illeszkedéseket kerestünk. Emellett összehasonlítottuk az ellentétes nemű szülő felől észlelt bánásmódot a partnertől tapasztalt bánásmóddal. Feltételezve, hogy az egyén, választásaiban a séma-kémia elvét követve, hajlamos olyan partnert választani, aki meglévő sémáit megerősíti, valószínűsítettük, hogy ezek jelentős hasonlóságot mutatnak.Vizsgálatunkban a Young-féle Séma Kérdőívet, a Young-féle Szülői Gondoskodás Kérdőívet, a Pár Kérdőívet és demográfiai kérdőívet használtuk, amelyet 35 pár, azaz 70 fő töltött ki.Eredményeink a maladaptív sématartományok jelentős illeszkedését nem erősítették meg, ugyanakkor figyelemre méltó együttjárásokat mutattak a szülő és a választott partner bánásmódja között. Férfiak esetében az anyai bánásmód hatása egyértelmű hasonlósági választásokban nyilvánulhat meg, míg nőknél az apa viszonyulása hasonlósági és komplementer választásokat egyaránt eredményezhet.
Authors:Beáta Reiz, Róbert Busa-Fekete, Sándor Pongor, and Ilona Kovács
The primary visual cortex (V1) of the mammalian brain is equipped with a specifically connected network of neurons that can potentially solve difficult image processing tasks. These neurons are selectively tuned for locations in visual space and also for line orientation. The coupling of location and orientation tuning results in the neural representation of the visual world in terms of local features. These local features, e.g., oriented line segments, will have to be linked together in order to parse the visual world into regions corresponding to object and ground. Although standard models of V1 do not address the issue of interacting neuronal populations, we suggest that the long-range connectivity pattern of V1 provides an architecture where spreading neural activity may lead to pertinent figure-ground segmentation. The model relies on the fact that in addition to the processing units, their connections are also selectively tuned for space and orientation. From the computational point of view, the model uses a minimalist approach that applies the fundamental concepts of Gestalt psychology – proximity, similarity and continuity – to the spreading of neuronal activation signals. This model is successful in predicting psychophysical performance of human observers, and provides an account of the computational power of V1.
How does the brain determine what to learn and what not to learn? Previous studies showed that a feature or stimulus on which subjects performed a task was learned, while the features or stimuli that were irrelevant to the task were not learned. This led some researchers to conclude that attention to a stimulus was necessary for the stimulus to be learned. This thought was challenged by the discovery of a task-irrelevant perceptual learning, in which learning occurred by mere exposure to the unattended and subthreshold stimulus. However, this exposure-based learning does not necessarily indicate that all presented stimuli are learned. Rather, recent studies showed that the occurrence of this learning was very selective for the following new findings: unattended stimulus learning occurred only (1) when the unattended stimulus was associated temporally with the processing of an attended target, (2) when the unattended stimulus was synchronously presented with reinforcers, such as internal or external rewards, and (3) when the unattended stimulus had subliminal properties. These selectivities suggest some degrees of similarity between task-relevant and task-irrelevant perceptual learning, which has been the motivation for making a united model in which both task-relevant and task-irrelevant learning are formed with similar or same mechanisms.
Authors:Sam-Wook Choi, Young-Chul Shin, Jung Yeon Mok, Dai-Jin Kim, Jung-Seok Choi, and Samuel Suk-Hyun Hwang
Background and aims
Gambling disorder (GD) shares many similarities with substance use disorders (SUDs) in clinical, neurobiological, and neurocognitive features, including decision-making. We evaluated the relationships among, GD, decision-making, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), as measured by serum BDNF levels.
Twenty-one male patients with GD and 21 healthy sex- and age-matched control subjects were evaluated for associations between serum BDNF levels and the Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI), as well as between serum BDNF levels and Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) indices.
The mean serum BDNF levels were significantly increased in patients with GD compared to healthy controls. A significant correlation between serum BDNF levels and PGSI scores was found when controlling for age, depression, and duration of GD. A significant negative correlation was obtained between serum BDNF levels and IGT improvement scores.
These findings support the hypothesis that serum BDNF levels constitute a dual biomarker for the neuroendocrine changes and the severity of GD in patients. Serum BDNF level may serve as an indicator of poor decision-making performance and learning processes in GD and help to identify the common physiological underpinnings between GD and SUDs.