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The idea of ‘national’ in Croatian 19th-century music shows evolutionary tendencies, which can be articulated in four phases. It started in the period 1800–1830 as a construct leading towards higher general musical standards, displaying universality above particularity as its ideal. It continued in the period 1830–1850 with pragmatic treatment of music as incidental to poetry, supporting non-musical, mostly political issues, where universality equaled particularity. It achieved in the period 1850–1870 the status of a substantial part in the scholarly re-construction of national history, still equaling universality with particularity. Finally, as a concept of ethnic or national art music, it reached in the period 1870–1916 a status of general interest in national cultural life and education, displaying particularity above universality.

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Bartók left behind over 300 folksong arrangements. In the field of vocal music, three series are based on Slovak folksongs: Five Slovak Folksongs for male choir (1917, BB 77), Four Slovak Folksongs for mixed choir and piano (1917, BB 78) and Village Scenes (1924, 1926, BB 87). The series are strongly connected among themselves in terms of textual content, formal concept, and treatment of folk melodies. In Village Scenes, Stravinsky’s influence is unmistakable. Not only was Bartók “influenced” by Stravinsky but he also imitated and even “quoted” Les Noces (1923). The article examines the relationship between the two works using Bartók’s 1928 essay Hungarian Folk Music and New Hungarian Music as a point of reference.

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The goal of this paper is to analise the magical elements of mesopotamian medical texts. The Mesopotamian concept of illness is interpreting physical complaints and pain, that is symptoms and illness, as messages from the gods (omens), claiming that medical texts deal with a specific type of this kind of message transfer, namely those cases when the bad omen occurs on the human body. In this article I introduce the sources and the cultural context of Mesopotamian medical texts, then I examine the magical elements in the process of healing treatment. We can conclude that the minor role of practice in the curing of illnesses is supported by the magic elements (e.g. aspects of numerology, or magic circles) identifiable in each step of healing with medicaments.

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Abstract  

What happens when we consider “poetics,” a term and concept well-known from Aristotle’s philosophical treatment of Greek epic and tragic drama, in the larger context of world literature as we understand it today? What would be the essential elements in the definition of poetics? What sort of critical issues it can address, and what resources it may draw on in the world’s various literary traditions? In the ancient world, East Asia and South Asia all have distinct traditions of literary expression with emphasis and critical conceptualizations rather different from those of the Greek-Roman tradition. What would the consideration of poetics in a broad cross-cultural perspective lead us to? In this presentation, these are the theoretical issues to be explored to arrive at a better understanding of poetics not only in the Western tradition, but truly of the world, with the richness of content and critical functions considered with relation to a global concept of world literature.

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The article deals with the problem of a Greek collection of maxims in Arabic translation. The collection under examination has two special features among the many similar collections: 1) In this gnomology each one of the maxims ascribed to Aristotle is compared with one of the maxims abstracted from the poems of al-Mutanabbi’ (915–965), who lived in the tenth century. 2) The maxims deal with some traditional concepts of the late antique moral teaching usual in other collections (desire, pleasure, wisdom, etc.), but their negative treatment (e.g. that of desire and pleasure) is turned into a positive one many times in our collection. The maxims quoted in this collection cannot be ascribed to Aristotle, but they are not alien to the Aristotelian tradition. This collection together with other ones seems to prove that maxims played a much more important role in the late antique literature, than it used to be thought earlier.

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Ennek a dolgozatnak a tárgya a morfológia, illetve szótan ókori grammatikákban megmutatkozó felfogása, melyet kétféle összefüggésben helyezünk el: egyrészt a morfológia mai modelljeinek tipológiájában, másfelől pedig azok tudománytörténeti alakulásában. Áttekintjük, hogy milyen érvek szólnak a mai nyelvelméletben az ókori típusú, szigorú értelemben morfológia nélküli szótan mellett. Szólunk arról is, hogy hogyan bontakozott ki a morfológiai szerkezet egyre pontosabb felismerése a magyar nyelv régi, latin alapú grammatikáiban a 16–17. század folyamán.

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In spite of their differences, Two-level Conceptual Semantics, Generative Lexicon Theory and Relevance Theory also have similarities with respect to treatment of the relation of word meanings and contexts. Therefore, the three theories can be considered as complementing each other in analysing word meanings in utterances. In the present paper I will outline a conception of lexical pragmatics which critically amalgamates the views of these theories and has more explanatory power than each theory does separately. Such a lexical pragmatic conception accepts lexical-semantic representations which can be radically underspecified and allow for other methods of meaning description than componential analysis. As words have underspecified meaning representations, they reach their full meanings in corresponding contexts (immediate or extended) through considerable pragmatic inference. The Cognitive Principle of Relevance regulates the way in which the utterance meaning is construed.

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Both demonology and medical learning wanted to define what material proofs they were to use in order to alleviate the politically rooted disease symptoms of the early modern period. Finding the proper therapeutic treatment required the appropriate description of the pathology, revealing the causes and consequences and making the right diagnosis. Several key questions were formulated concerning these requirements. Most of the questions formulated in this way are based on a formal syllogism that meets the normative requirements of disciplines that include law, theology and medicine and whose formal elements became valid within the systems of fulfilment of these disciplines themselves. In this paper I shall attempt to introduce the scholarly literature based on these formal logical criteria that address material proofs, omens, prophecies, oracles and miracles. I shall then outline how this debate in European secondary literature has been received in Hungarian scholarship.

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Ponori Thewrewk Emil, akit a magyar klasszika-filológia első nagy alakjának és megalapítójának tekintünk, egyúttal az egyetlen olyan magyar tudós is, aki foglalkozott az ókori görögök állatvédelmével. A téma iránti érdeklődése azzal a hatással magyarázható, amelyet szellemi környezete gyakorolt rá, közeli rokonságára és ismerőseire. A kor állatvédő mozgalmainak érvelése, amely az a minore ad maius elvén alapszik („aki kíméletlen az állatokkal, az kíméletlen lesz az emberekkel is”), megragadható Ponori Thewrewk rövid cikkében, amely különbséget tesz az állati élet megkíméléséhez vezető, régi vallásos hiedelmek és azon törvényes athéni esetek között, amelyekben az állatokkal szembeni kegyetlenséget megbüntették mint az emberekkel szembeni, jövőbeni kegyetlenség előjelét. Tanulmányom első felében (I–II. rész) megkísérlem feltárni Ponori Thewrewk személyes indíttatását és kapcsolatait, amelyek a kor állatvédő mozgalmaihoz fűzték, majd a III. részben sorra veszem azokat a Ponori Thewrewk által említett, ókori vallásos és törvényi megfontolásokat, amelyek az állatokkal való kíméletes bánásmódhoz vezettek, hogy teljes képet nyerjünk az ókori görögök állatvédelmi törekvéseiről és arról, ahogyan ezt Ponori Thewrewk és kortársai látták.

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The author of this paper analyzes the inner world of certain Puškin's poems (motifs, topoi, characters) taking Byron's influence and the poet's reflections on history into consideration. Puškin inherited the structure of genre, the literary character of rebellious hero and the other "obligatory" elements of romantic epical poem (exotic surroundings, nocturnal scenes, extreme emotions etc.) from Byron. A closer influence of the English pattern can be observed only in the early poems of Puškin (The Prisoner of the Caucasus, The Fountain at Bakhchisarai). But the tricks, motifs and necessary "accessories" he employs become the vehicles of increasingly meaningful thoughts which allow the genre to rise to such a level that it could keep its canonised place in the Russian literature even after the vanishing of romanticism. From the mid-1820s the historic events of the period, the repression of the Dekabrist uprising and also the new direction in Puškin's interest are reflected in his works. Among them the epical poem Poltava is considered by the experts the example of overcoming Byron's previous influence. What is followed in this paper is the treatment of the different tragic connections between power and individual by Puškin.

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