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Laurie, D. A., Pratchett, N., Bezant, J. H., Snape, J. W. 1995: RFLP mapping of five major genes and eight quantitative trait loci controlling flowering time in a winter x spring barley ( Hordeum vulgare L

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Adamski, T. (1979): The obtaining of autodiploid barley lines using haploids from the cross Hordeum vulgare L. × Hordeum bulbosum L. Genet. Pol. , 20 , 31–41. Adamski T. The

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Reproducible PCR-RAPD Markers that Enable the Differentiation of Closely Related Six-Rowed Malting Barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.) Cultivars. J. Am. Soc. Brew. Chem. 54(3): 172–176. Bregitzer P

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. Sbei , H. , Hammami , Z. , Trifa , Y. , Hamza , S. , Harrabi , M. 2012 . Phenotypic diversity analysis for salinity tolerance of Tunisian barley populations ( Hordeum vulgare L.) . J. Arid Land Stud . 22 : 57 – 60

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Dale, P.J., Deambrogio, E.A. 1979. Comparison of callus induction and plant regeneration from different explants of Hordeum vulgare . Zeitschrift für Pflanzenphysiologie 94 :65–77. Deambrogio E

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( Hordeum vulgare L.). Crop Res. Hisar , 9 , 363-369. Genetics of yield and yield components in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Crop Res. Hisar 9

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chromosome 2(2H) of Hordeum vulgare (barley). Heredity , 72 , 619-627. Genetic analysis of a photoperiod response gene on the short arm of chromosome 2(2H) of Hordeum vulgare (barley) Heredity

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immature embryos of an elite barley cultivar ( Hordeum vulgare L. Cv. Morex). Plant Cell Rep. 21 , 733–738. Chen T. H. H. High frequency plant regeneration from immature embryos

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The vast genetic resources of wild barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum, hereafter WB) may hold unique assets for improving barley (H. vulgare ssp. vulgare) cultivars for drought stress. To evaluate genetic potential and characterization of variation among a diverse collection of barley and WB genotypes, mostly originated from Iran, a field experiment was performed under three moisture environments (control, mild and intense drought stress) during two years (2012–2014). Considerable variation was observed among the wild and cultivated genotypes for drought tolerance and agronomic traits. Principal component analysis (PCA) grouped genotypes studied into three groups (WB, two-row barley and sixrow barley groups). However, Iranian and foreign WB genotypes were not completely separated, showing a high variation within both gene pools. The high significance of genotype by environment interaction, confirms importance of using accurate target environments for drought stress breeding. A number of WB genotypes with the highest values of the number of tillers, number of seed per spike, seed weight, grain yield and yield stability index under stressed environments were identified as superior genotypes. Most of these genotypes originate from Iran, highlighting the importance of this germplasm in barley breeding.

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Acta Biologica Hungarica
Authors: E. Sheval, Yu. Kazhura, Nina Poleshuk, Elena Lazareva, Elena Smirnova, Natalia Maximova, and V. Polyakov

The extensive use of herbicides in agriculture becomes an important factor in environmental pollution, especially in case of slowly degradable compounds. Some agents act on plants during a long period of time, even if a very low concentration of the herbicide remains in the soil. Here, we investigated the toxicological effect of a low concentration of dinitroaniline herbicide, trifluralin, on growing seedlings of Hordeum vulgare L. Trifluralin in concentration of 1 μg/ml inhibited root growth. The mitotic activity of meristematic cells was suppressed due to the retardation of metaphase progression — alteration that can be caused by cytoskeleton disorder. Using antibodies to α-tubulin, we investigated the distribution of microtubules in root meristem cells. During all stages of mitosis, the highly regular system of microtubular cytoskeleton observed in control cells was slightly disorganized. An examination of root structure using light and electron microscopy demonstrated that the cell walls did not form normally during cell division that led to the appearance of large multinucleated cells. Also, the premature (pathological) cell differentiation was induced by trifluralin. A part of differentiating cells showed intracellular structural changes that are consistent with programmed cell death. It seems that the development of alterations in trifluralin-treated roots was due to the microtubular cytoskeleton disorganization.

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