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. Horváth, L. & Mészáros, E., 1984. The composition and acidity of precipitation in Hungary. Atmospheric Environment. 18. 1843–1847. Kádár I., 2000. Az őszi árpa ( Hordeum vulgare L.) tápelemfelvétele karbonátos

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Abstract

Water availability is one of the major physiological factors influencing plant growth and development. An assessment study has been done at the Szent István University, Gödöllő to evaluate and identify the water footprint of protein yield of field crop species. Twelve field crop species (Sugar beet Beta vulgaris, spring and winter barley Hordeum vulgare, winter wheat Triticum aestivum, maize Zea mays, sunflower Helianthus annuus, peas Pisum sativum, potato Solanum tuberosum, alfalfa Medicago sativa, oilseed rape Brassica napus, rye Secale cereale and oats Avena sativa) were involved in the study. Evapotranspiration patterns of the crops studied have been identified by the regular agroclimatology methodology and physiologically reliable protein ranges within crop yields were evaluated.

The results obtained suggest, that water footprint of cereals proved to be the lowest, however maize values were highly affected by the high variability of protein yield. Oilseed crops had considerably high protein yield with medium water efficiency. Alfalfa, potato and sugar beet water footprints were in accordance with their evapotranspiration patterns.

Protein based water footprint assessment seems to be more applicable in crop species evaluations than that of yield based methodologies.

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A pot experiment was designed to study the colonization of indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.) host plant. Soils of the pots were collected from a long-term field microelement loading experiment on calcareous chernozem soil twelve years after 13 heavy metals (Al, As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mo, Ni, Pb, Se, Sr and Zn) were applied once in four doses (0, 30, 90 and 270 mg element·kg -1 d.w.). The biomass production and element accumulation of the host plant, the various colonization values of the arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi (AMF) – such as colonization intensity (M %), arbusculum richness (A %) in the root system and the sporulation intensity (g -1 dry soil) in the rhizosphere – were measured. When considering the twelve-year adaptation process of the AM fungal populations at the various metal loads, a relatively balanced inside mycorrhiza colonization was found, suggesting the potentials for the selection of tolerant fungi in metal contaminated soils. The balanced infection intensity (M %) of the AM fungi and their common strategies with the host plant have resulted a nonsignificant shoot and root biomass production of barley in general. Mycorrhiza sporulation in the root system proved to be much variable and indicated the toxicity of metals and metal rates. Cd, Pb and Sr elements significantly reduced spore numbers, while a value of 34 spores·g -1 soil was counted in the case of Ni in comparison to the control’s 22 spores·g -1 soil value. Stress-defending strategies of the fungal–plant symbiosis, such as the increased arbusculum richness (A %) could be established for the Hg and Pb rates. In the case of Cd an increased root biomass production became a tool for stress alleviation and reduced the metal allocation towards the shoots. Mycorrhiza fungi are part of the common plant–microbe interactions and appropriate defending mechanisms in metal contaminated soils.

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módszerie. MTA TAKI. Budapest. A növénytáplálás alapelvei és módszerie Kádár I., 2000. Az oszi árpa ( Hordeum vulgare L.) tápelemfelvétele

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. Identifying inflorescence phytoliths from selected species of wheat ( Triticum monococcum, T. dicoccon, T. dicoccoides , and T. aestivum ) and barley ( Hordeum vulgare and H. spontaneum ) (Gramineae) . American Journal of Botany 86 ( 11 ). 1615 – 1623

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. Agrokémia és Talajtan. 59. 329–344. Kádár I., 2011. Mikroelem-terhelés hatása az őszi árpára (Hordeum vulgare L.) karbonátos homoktalajon. Agrokémia és Talajtan. 60. 179–194. Kádár I. & Kastori R

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. & Streibig , J. C. 2006. Growth response of six weed species and spring barley (Hordeum vulgare) to increasing levels of nitrogen and phosphorus. Weed Research. 46. 503–512. Debreczeni B.- né , 1994. A

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. Relationship between the chemical form of nickel applied to the soil and its uptake and toxicity to barley plants ( Hordeum vulgare L.). Geoderma. 122. (2–4) 247–255. MSz 21470-50:2006. Környezetvédelmi talajvizsgálatok. Az

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and heat emission from seedlings of Festuca pratensis (Hud.) and Hordeum vulgare L. during pathogenesis caused by Bipolaris sorokiniana (Sacc.) Shoem . Acta Physiol Plant 22 : 25 – 30 10.1007/s11738

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, R. E., Shewry, P. R. & Peterson, P. J., 1976. Chromium uptake and transport in barley seedlings ( Hordeum vulgare L.). Planta. 132 . 209--214. Chromium uptake and transport in barley seedlings

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