Authors:M. Szeitz-Szabó, L. Bíró, Gy. Bíró, and J. Sali
In 2009 Hungarian Food Safety Office (HFSO) performed a countrywide representative dietary survey to obtain food consumption data for quantitative food safety risk assessment utilizable in the field of public health nutrition as well. The consumption of foodstuffs, daily energy- and nutrient intakes, nutritional habits and dietary supplement usage of Hungarian population was assessed. The complex system has included three-day dietary record and a food consumption frequency questionnaire. Some anthropometric parameters were also self-recorded. According to the body mass index, a considerable proportion of both the 31–60 years old males (69%) and females (46%) were overweight or obese. The energy intake of the Hungarian adult population is slightly exceeds the recommendation. The intake of proteins is satisfactory in general. The average intake of total fats is very high (36.1–38.9 energy percent), and the fatty acid composition — mostly the ratio of n-6/n-3 fatty acids — is unfavourable, but the fatty acid pattern regarding saturated- (SFA), mono- (MUFA) and polyunsaturated (PUFA) fatty acid ratio shows favourable tendency. The proportion of complex carbohydrates within the intake of energy providing macronutrients is far lower than the optimal level, but it is a positive finding that added sugar intake is below the outmost recommendation. The average daily cholesterol intake is high (males: 469 mg, females: 335 mg), whilst the dietary fibre intake is lower than the recommended. The article provides data on alcohol, caffeine and fibre consumption, too.
Authors:S. C. Tran, H. Th. Le, and T. H. Thai-Nguyen
A modified QuEChERS method was developed and validated for determination of pesticide multi-residues in green tea by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Lead acetate was first time used together with primary secondary amine and graphite carbon black to eliminate tannin, caffeine, and other pigments in tea and thus reduced the matrix effects. The method was compared to the original QuEChERS method as well as A.O.A.C. QuEChERS method. For accurate quantification, the matrix matched calibration technique was used. The method showed good performance in the concentration range from 0.01 to 1 mg kg–1. All pesticides could be quantified at and lower than 0.01 mg kg–1. Recoveries were from 70 to 120% and repeatabilities were <15% RSD depending on the compounds.
Authors:E. Ivanišová, K. Meňhartová, M. Terentjeva, L. Godočíková, J. Árvay, and M. Kačániová
The aim of the present study was to determine the microbial composition, antioxidant activity, and content of phytochemicals in prepared kombucha tea beverage. Microbiota was identified by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, antioxidant activity of beverage was tested by ABTS and phosphomolybdenum method, the total content of phytochemicals (polyphenols, flavonoids, and phenolic acids) was measured by colorimetric methods. The major phenolic acids, flavonoids, and methylxanthines were detected by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Candida krusei, Sphingomonas melonis, Sphingomonas aquatilis, Brevibacillus centrosporus, and Gluconobacter oxydans were the most abundant microorganisms. Antioxidant activity of kombucha tested by ABTS and phosphomolybdenum method was 1.16 mg TEAC/ml and 2.04 mg TEAC/ml, respectively, which values were higher than in black tea 0.67 and 0.81 mg TEAC/ml, respectively. Also, content of total polyphenols (0.42 mg GAE/ ml), flavonoids (0.13 mg QE/ml), and phenolic acids (0.19 mg CAE/ml) was higher in kombucha than in black tea (0.18 mg GAE/ml; 0.02 mg QE/ml; 0.05 mg CAE/ml, respectively). Gallic, chlorogenic, syringic, and protocatechuic acids, and rutin and vitexin from flavonoids were dominant in kombucha beverage detected by HPLC. Strong difference in caffeine contents, 217.81 µg ml−1 (black tea) and 100.72 µg ml−1 (kombucha beverage), was observed. The amounts of theobromine were similar in black tea and kombucha, but theophylline was detected only in black tea in trace amount (0.52 µg ml−1).
, Y.F. , C HEN , Y. , B ROWN , P.H. , L YLE , B.J. , B LACK , R.M. , C HENG , I.H. , O U , B. & P RIOR , R.L. ( 2012 ): Bioactivities of crude caffeine: Antioxidant activity, cyclooxygenase-2 inhibition, and enhanced glucose uptake