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. ( 2012 ): Lactose hydrolysis and other conversions in dairy products: Technological aspects . Int. Dairy J. , 22 , 104 – 109 . ISO ( 2003 ): Sensory analysis, guidelines for the use of quantitative response

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Philippidis, G. P. & Smith, T. K. (1995): Limiting factors in the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process for conversion of cellulosic biomass to fuel ethanol. Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol. , 51/52 , 117-124. Limiting

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Because of the effect of photoperiod on physiological and biochemical processes in fish, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of manipulated photoperiod on growth, feed conversion and survival of wild carp, Cyprinus carpio. Fish received six photoperiod regimes (light:dark cycle) including: natural photoperiod (control), 24L:0D, 16L:8D, 12L:12D, 8L:16D and 0L:24D by the three replications. Regulated photoperiods as a 16L:8D or 12L:12D light/dark cycle significantly improved growth rate and food conversion ratio of wild carp.

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global energy demand to 2030, (b); Carbon dioxide and methane emissions (Shell sustainability report) Thermochemical conversion technology presents a good and viable option for the valorization of several type of lignocellulosic biomass (constituted from

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Enigmatic morphological features of the formation and fate of “dark” (hyper-basophilic, hyper-argyrophilic and hyper-electrondense) neurons suggest that the mechanical work causing their dramatic shrinkage (whole-cell ultrastructural compaction) is done by a previously “unknown” ultrastructural component residing in the spaces between their “known” (i.e. visible in the conventional transmission electron microscopy) ultrastructural constituents. Embedment-free section electron microscopy revealed in these spaces the existence of a continuous network of gel microdomains, which is embedded in a continuous network of fluid-filled lacunae. We gathered experimental facts suggesting that this gel network is capable of a volume-reducing phase-transition (an established physico-chemical phenomenon), which could be the motor of the whole-cell ultrastructural compaction. The present paper revisits our relevant observations and speculates how such a continuous whole-cell gel network can do both whole-cell and compartmentalized mechanical work.

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Harris, D., Stork, J., DeBolt, S. (2009) Genetic modification in cellulose-synthase reduces crystallinity and improves biochemical conversion to fermentable sugar. GCB Bioenergy 1 , 51–61. DeBolt S

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In aquatic macrophyte ecology, species abundance is usually estimated by cover values expressed on the ordinal scale. Recently, there has been increasing demand for three-dimensional estimates of plant abundance. To extend ordinal cover data into three dimensions, a new formula is proposed which considers the vertical developmental types of plants. In this, a constant k is used with three different values reflecting three groups of macrophytes, namely the “free floating leaved”; “rooted, floating leaved” and “submersed leaved” species. By using the new formula, inappropriate conversion and evaluation of ordinal abundance data occurring frequently in the literature may also be avoided.

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fructosyltransferase (FTase). The reaction is commonly performed at high initial sucrose concentration (over 300 gL −1 ) in order to shift enzyme activity from hydrolysis of sucrose towards transfructosylation. The conversion is a complex process that involves a series

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Synthetic seed technology is an alternative to traditional micropropagation for production and delivery of cloned plantlets. Synthetic seeds were produced by encapsulating nodal segments of C. angustifolia in calcium alginate gel. 3% (w/v) sodium alginate and 100 mM CaCl2 · 2H2O were found most suitable for encapsulation of nodal segments. Synthetic seeds cultured on half strength Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with thidiazuron (5.0 μM) + indole-3-acetic acid (1.0 μM) produced maximum number of shoots (10.9 ± 0.78) after 8 weeks of culture exhibiting (78%) in vitro conversion response. Encapsulated nodal segments demonstrated successful regeneration after different period (1–6 weeks) of cold storage at 4 °C. The synthetic seeds stored at 4 °C for a period of 4 weeks resulted in maximum conversion frequency (93%) after 8 weeks when placed back to regeneration medium. The isolated shoots when cultured on half strength Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 1.0 μM indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), produced healthy roots and plantlets with well-developed shoot and roots were successfully hardened off in plastic pots containing sterile soilrite inside the growth chamber and gradually transferred to greenhouse where they grew well with 85% survival rate. Growth performance of 2 months old in vitro-raised plant was compared with in vivo seedlings of the same age. Changes in the content of photosynthetic pigments, net photosynthetic rate (PN), superoxide dismutase and catalase activity in C. angustifolia indicated the adaptation of micropropagated plants to ex vitro conditions.

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Gene expression is regulated at the critical steps: a regulatory event occurs at the step which has a criti- cal effect and is responsible for the limiting rate. Enzyme activity can be regulated at several different levels: transcriptional, translational or post-translational. In this review we describe (and illustrate with experimental data) plant stress which induces regulatory mechanisms at the translational and post-trans- lational levels. We found evidence for autorepression regulatory system of ferritin biosynthesis. Based on the knowl- edge of the molecular mechanism of regulation, we believe that ferritin protects the environment against heavy metal ions and supplements biological system(s) with iron. The quinolizidine alkaloids™ (QA) biosynthesis is lysine decarboxylase (LDC)-dependent. The avail- able pool of LDC limits the conversion of lysine to cadaverine. The amount of LDC depends on tran- scriptional and translational efficiency. However, in the light of the presented data, we have evidence for a post-translational regulatory system, i.e. the activation of LDC from low to high activity enzyme through the conversion from higher to lower molecular weight form. The plant protection system is very efficient. Understanding of the defence systems such as plant response to stress, should provide us with a possibility of applying this knowledge in practice and find- ing novel applications.

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