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Authors:Y. S. Mostafa, E. László, and F. I. El-hawary
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According to the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive, a significant share of the energy consumption of nearly zero energy buildings is covered from renewable energy. Biomass is considered as one of the most important renewable sources. It is promising since most of the Member states apply very low primary energy conversion factors for it. Nevertheless, the primary energy need is not as favourable as the conversion factors suggest, due to the efficiency of the biomass boilers for all over the year which depends on the changing load. Heating systems supplied with biomass boilers need buffer storage tanks which further decrease the efficiency of the system.
The nearly zero energy buildings, especially those of residential use exhibit more stable load due to the lower heat loss and the overwhelming share of the net energy need of domestic hot water supply.
A net zero-energy building (NZEB) is considered as a resident or commercial building where the energy needs are covered by using locally available renewable energy sources and technologies. Various types of heat pumps are widely used energy conversion systems for NZEB strategies implementation. This paper is focused on the development of a novel LabView-based model for an air-source heat pump system that absorbs heat from outside air and releases it inside the building as domestic hot water supply or room's space heating by using hot water-filled fan-coils. In the first research steps the mathematical background of the considered heat pump system has been developed. Then the LabView-based software implementation of the air-source heat pump and entire heating circuit model is unfolded and presented. The result is a versatile and powerful graphical software toolkit, suitable to simulate the complex heating, ventilation and air-conditioning processes in net-zero energy buildings and to perform energy balance performance evaluations. Beside the elaborated mathematical models, a concrete software implementation example and measurement data is provided in the paper. Last but not least, the proposed original model offers a feasible solution for future developments and research in NZEB applications modeling and simulation purposes.
Solar power is the conversion of sunlight into electricity, using photovoltaic (PV) solar panels. This paper introduces the solar power station in Fish Country, in Hungary. The examined solar power station (50 kWp) consists of 200 pieces of polycrystalline silicon Kyocera solar panels. The efficiency of this power station was measured and calculated in order to determine its amortization period and the amount of prevented CO2 emission as a consequence of this technology. The results of the measurement and calculation of the efficiency demonstrate that the facility fulfils the committed requirements. Nowadays, the air pollution is considered as one of the major causes of the global warming. This is reflected by the EU restriction of the emissions. The solar power station, which was built by Aranyponty Halászati Ltd., contributed to reduce the local CO2 emission, but it has impact on the global level as well, because circa 50 tons of carbon dioxide is prevented to be emitted into the atmosphere per year.