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Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Antonius J. van Rooij PhD, Daria J. Kuss, Mark D. Griffiths, Gillian W. Shorter, Tim M. Schoenmakers, and Dike van de Mheen



The current study explored the nature of problematic (addictive) video gaming (PVG) and the association with game type, psychosocial health, and substance use.


Data were collected using a paper and pencil survey in the classroom setting. Three samples were aggregated to achieve a total sample of 8478 unique adolescents. Scales included measures of game use, game type, the Video game Addiction Test (VAT), depressive mood, negative self-esteem, loneliness, social anxiety, education performance, and use of cannabis, alcohol and nicotine (smoking).


Findings confirmed problematic gaming is most common amongst adolescent gamers who play multiplayer online games. Boys (60%) were more likely to play online games than girls (14%) and problematic gamers were more likely to be boys (5%) than girls (1%). High problematic gamers showed higher scores on depressive mood, loneliness, social anxiety, negative self-esteem, and self-reported lower school performance. Nicotine, alcohol, and cannabis using boys were almost twice more likely to report high PVG than non-users.


It appears that online gaming in general is not necessarily associated with problems. However, problematic gamers do seem to play online games more often, and a small subgroup of gamers — specifically boys — showed lower psychosocial functioning and lower grades. Moreover, associations with alcohol, nicotine, and cannabis use are found. It would appear that problematic gaming is an undesirable problem for a small subgroup of gamers. The findings encourage further exploration of the role of psychoactive substance use in problematic gaming.

Open access

value assignment is often referred to as the ‘step size’ (e.g. $10 for 1 point) and the time to reward as the reward distance ( Min et al., 2016; Van Dyke, Jenner & Maddern, 2016 ) although different point values may apply to different games and

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Eszter Kotyuk, Anna Magi, Andrea Eisinger, Orsolya Király, Andrea Vereczkei, Csaba Barta, Mark D. Griffiths, Anna Székely, Gyöngyi Kökönyei, Judit Farkas, Bernadette Kun, Rajendra D. Badgaiyan, Róbert Urbán, Kenneth Blum, and Zsolt Demetrovics

. D. , Shorter , G. W. , Schoenmakers , M. T. , & Dike , V. D. M. ( 2014 ). The (co-)occurrence of problematic video gaming, substance use, and psychosocial problems in adolescents . Journal of Behavioral Addiction , 3 ( 3 ), 157 – 165

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, 7 ( 3 ), 1 – 5 . Campanelli , L ., Van Dyke , J. A ., & Marton , K . ( 2018 ). The modulatory effect of expectations on memory retrieval during sentence comprehension . In Rogers , T. T ., Rau , M ., Zhu , X ., & Kalish , C. W . (Eds

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Liver Disease, 43S , 440. Godfrey, J.D., Brantner, T.L., Brinjikji, W., Christensen, K.N., Brogan, D.L., Van Dyke, C.T., et al. (2010). Morbidity and ortality among older individuals with undiagnosed celiac disease

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, 140 ( 3 ), 682 – 721 . DOI: 10.1037/a0034834 Van Dyke , D. , Ferraro , F. R. , Pytlik , R. , Swenseth , M. , & Peterson , L. ( 2014 ). Detection of Verbal Threat in Older

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