Authors:Tassiane Matsubara, Mitiko Saiki, and Guilherme Zahn
In recent years, environmental concerns regarding antimony have grown considerably due to anthropogenic processes that have
resulted in increasing concentration of Sb in the environment, and also because of its impacts and possible adverse effects
to living organisms. Several techniques have been used, to obtain reliable results for Sb, since Sb is present at low level
concentration, requiring analytical instrumentation with low detection limits. The neutron activation analysis (NAA) technique
has a high metrological level for the determination of several elements in different matrices. However, Sb determination in
environmental and biological samples presents some analytical difficulties due to its low concentrations and gamma ray spectrum
interferences. The objective of this research was to study on Sb determination in environmental reference materials by NAA.
Ten environmental reference materials were selected and analyzed using long period irradiation at IEA-R1 research nuclear
reactor. The induced gamma activities of 122Sb and 124Sb were measured. Relative errors of the results demonstrated that the accuracy depends mainly on Sb radioisotope measured,
the decay time for counting and the sample composition.
Authors:Zal Wan Mahmood, Nik Nik Ariffin, Abdul Ishak, Norfaizal Mohamed, Mei Yii, Kamaruzaman Ishak, and Zainab Pa’wan
A method is described for the determination of 90Sr in environmental samples using combination of developed in-house method, Eichrom Sr resin and Beta Counter. Strontium was
efficiently, rapidly and simply separated from Ca and other interfering matrix components by Eichrom Sr resin. All the results
in general showed good accuracy, high precision, reliable and in good agreement between these two measured and certified value
of SRM (i.e. IAEA-375, IAEA-326, IAEA-152 and IAEA-414). As a whole, the procedure described in this work notably improves
conventional methods in particular concerning the time needed, sample volume, safer and others. Thus, the introduced method
was successfully performed and will be applied to actual sample for the determination of 90Sr in different environmental materials such as soil, sediments, milk, biological sample, water etc.
Hermsmeyer, H. A. (2005):
Environmental Refugees: A Denial of Rights, Contemporary Topics in Forced Migration
. Working Paper No. 2, Forced Migration Laboratory, Center for Comparative Immigration Studies
The measurement of fission product cesium isotopes 135Cs and 137Cs at low femtogram (fg) 10−15 levels in ground water by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) is reported. To eliminate the natural barium
isobaric interference on the cesium isotopes, in-line chromatographic separation of the cesium from barium was performed followed
by high sensitivity ICP-MS analysis. A high efficiency desolvating nebulizer system was employed to maximize ICP-MS sensitivity
~10 cps/fg. The three sigma detection limit for 135Cs was 2 fg/mL (0.1 μBq/mL) and for 137Cs 0.9 fg/mL (0.0027 Bq/mL) measured from the standard with analysis time of less than 30 min/sample. Cesium detection and
135/137 isotope ratio measurement at very low femtogram levels using this method in a spiked ground water matrix is also demonstrated.
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Fortlage, C. A. (1990): Environmental Assessment. A Practical Guide. Gower Technical, Aldershot
Authors:Ágnes Hofmeister-Tóth, Kata Kelemen, and Marianna Piskóti
Gatersleben, B. — Vlek, C. A. J. (1998): Household Consumption, Quality-of-life and Environmental Impacts: A Psychological Perspective and Empirical Study. In: Noorman, K. J. — Schoot Uiterkamp, T. (eds