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The aim of the study was to elucidate the distribution and possible transmission routes of Toxocara spp. infection in Estonia. Out of 454 faecal and sand samples collected from park lawns and sandpits in the town of Tartu, 19 were Toxocara positive (4.2%). Out of the 45 sandpit samples 17.8% were Toxocara positive. Cat faeces was found in 21 sandpit samples. Parasitological necropsies were performed on 41 euthanised stray dogs and 27 cats in the Tallinn Dog Home. Additionally, 13 wild free-roaming brown rats (Rattus norvegicus) were captured from the Tallinn Dog Home territory, necropsied and studied for the presence of Toxocara larvae. Toxocara canis adults were found in 14.6% of the dogs and Toxocara cati (syn. mystax) adults in the small intestines of 48.2% of the cats examined. Larval infection was detected in the kidney and liver in 5 dogs (12.2%). Our study demonstrated only low-level larval Toxocara infections in adult dogs. Toxocara larvae were not found in cats and brown rats. According to the results of this study, cats more often carry Toxocara infection than dogs. Under our conditions, stray and free-roaming cats are the main contaminators of the environment with Toxocara eggs. Children playing in sandpits are the main risk group for larval toxocarosis.

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, K., Pechter, Ü., Maaroos, J., et al.: Physical activity of Estonian family doctors and their counselling for a healthy lifestile: a cross-sectional study. BMC Fam. Pract., 2010, 11 , 48

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. , Saarma , U. , Talvik , H. , Järvis , T. and Valdmann , H. ( 2006 ): Helminthologic survey of the wolf (Canis lupus) in Estonia, with an emphasis on Echinococcus granulosus . J. Wildlife Dis . 42 , 359 – 365

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Orvosi Hetilap
Authors: Enikő Szvák, Hedvig Győry, Antal Sklánitz, Lénárd Szabó, Wilfried Rosendahl, Stephanie Zesch, Krisztina Scheffer, Ildikó Szikossy, Ágnes Simek, György Pálfi, and Ildikó Pap

, Anderson J, Tõrv M, et al. Multidisciplinary investigation of two Egyptian child mummies curated at the University of Tartu Art Museum, Estonia (Late/Graeco-Roman Periods). PLoS ONE 2020; 15: e

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors: Salem Juwaid, Ratko Sukara, Aleksandra Penezić, Darko Mihaljica, Gorana Veinović, Nickolas G. Kavallieratos, Duško Ćirović, and Snežana Tomanović

. Z. ( 2014 ): Rapid urbanization of red foxes in Estonia: distribution, behaviour, attacks on domestic animals, and health-risks related to zoonotic diseases . PLoS One 9 , 1 – 15

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spirochete Borrelia miyamotoi in Estonian ticks. PLoS One 2012; 7: e51914. 21 Wilhelmsson P, Lindblom P, Fryland L, et al. Prevalence, diversity, and load of

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Orvosi Hetilap
Authors: Réka Vajda, Csilla Árváné Egri, Attila Kovács, András Budai, Lajos Döbrőssy, Róbert Koiss, Zsuzsanna Kívés, and Imre Boncz

al.: Impact of implementing a nationwide cervical cancer screening program on female population coverage by Pap-tests in Estonia. Tumori, 2010, 96 (4), 524–528. 28

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Orvosi Hetilap
Authors: Noémi Németh, Dóra Endrei, Lilla Horváth, Diána Elmer, Tímea Csákvári, Róbert Pónusz, László Szapáry, and Imre Boncz

]. 39 Rahu K, Rahu M, Zeeb H. Sex disparities in premature adult mortality in Estonia 1995–2016: a national register-based study. BMJ Open 2019; 9: e026210

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Orvosi Hetilap
Authors: András Mohos, Albert Varga, Csenge Hargittay, Dalma Csatlós, László Kalabay, and Péter Torzsa

. 13 Raag M, Pärna K. Cigarette smoking and smoking-attributable diseases among Estonian physicians: a cross-sectional study. BMC Public Health 2018; 18: 194

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proposal for Estonia. Europe and Estonian Health Insurance Fund, WHO, 2008. http://www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0009/78975/P4P_Estonia.pdf Groene, O., Kristensen, S., Arah, O. A., et al.: Feasibility of

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