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Since the incorporation of the Nigerian economy into the World Capitalist System, the indigenous social structure was fundamentally restructured. This restructuring was (and is still) affecting the family institution in its performance of the most important task of youth socialization leading to cases of what have been described as child abuse, urban violence, working children and, even, sexually deteriorating/ transmitted infections as a result of irresponsible sexual behavior among the youth. If the situation persists, what are the implications for the future of the individual youth and the family? How can the transition being experienced by the family be controlled to positively influence the future of the youth and, by implication, the society as a whole? This paper attempts to provide answers to these questions.

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This article presents the findings of a qualitative research project which aimed to map out the political evaluations and the social effects of the changing concept of family and the changing forms of family life. By interviewing political and economic decision-makers we intended to highlight the goals and the motives of the differenct family policy approaches, the characteristic features of the family concepts reflected by the policy-makers' decisions, as well as the relationship between state family policies and labor market policies on the one hand, and equal treatment expectations concerning both genders, on the other. On the basis of interviews conducted with ordinary people we examined how much people's lives are practically infuenced by the family policy measures introduced by the political and the economic decision makers. According to our findings the two different categories of respondents saw specific family policy issues in different ways - however, their interpretations of family policy as a whole were rather convergent. The importance of providing equality of opportunity for men and women, increasing the female employment rate, acknowledging the plurality of family lifestyles, reconciling work and family life - being European expectations as well as conditions of a worthy life - seemed to be overshadowed by the demographic issues of fertility and procreation.

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. Jönsson, Ingrid (2003): Fertility changes and family policy in Sweden. In: Letablier, M.-Th.–Pennec, S.: Changes Family Structure in Europe: New Challenges for Public Policy . European Research Centre, Leichestershire, 52

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Angelusz R. – Tardos R. (szerk.) (2005): Törések, hálók, hidak. DMKKA, Budapest. Abell, Ellen – Gecas, Viktor (1977): Guilt, Shame, and Family Socialization: A Retrospective Study, Journal of

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other family members. There are two kinds of public images of Roma women: on one hand, they are beautiful people, wearing colorful clothes, and surrounded by smiling, happy children. On the other hand, their image shows dirty, neglected, and ugly

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A társadalomban tapasztalható rendkívül erős politikai megosztottság még a családdal kapcsolatba hozható cikkekben is megjelenik. A családpolitika önállóan elsősorban akkor kerül bele a politikai sajtóba, ha valamilyen konkrét politikai eseményhez, kormányzati intézkedéshez kapcsolható. Mivel az önálló családpolitika általában nem jelent fajsúlyos kérdést a napi- és heti sajtóban, lényegében beolvad a szociálpolitikába.

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The paper analyses the experiences of case studies with 120 families that belong to those who were hit hardest by the economic and social transition. The steadily disadvantageous situation of these families can be traced back to the labor market processes. Despite decreasing unemployment figures and several labor market programs there are still large groups - young people, women with small children, elderly middle-aged persons, the Roma - who can hardly reintegrate into permanent employment. For these people no good choices exist between low wages of available and often uncertain, formal and official jobs and between the irregular incomes from casual, precarious work supplemented with social allowances and benefits. The mobilization of all family resources, including often the work of children, may help to overcome daily problems of subsistence, however their family system is often in danger. Market instability, the loss of continuous income, health problems, tensions and emotional crisis situation often jeopardize the daily conduct of life, housing conditions and the future of children. In the lack of other subsistence strategies and family models this instability is going to be reproduced by the younger generations.

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In 1998 the government of the Hungarian Republic decided that a new Civil Code is to be drafted. In 2000 the Main Committee of Codification issued guidelines for the new Civil Code, determining, among others, that the new Code is to be cast into separate books, after the model of the Dutch Civil Code, and that one of these separate books is to be devoted entirely to family law, i.e. a branch of law which has been enunciated in a separate Act since 1952. The present study examines some of the topical questions raised by a reform of family law in general, and the relevance of the above considerations to such an undertaking, in particular. The author makes a few proposals concerning the determination of independent principles for the family law materials which are to be included in the Civil Code, raises and discusses a number of questions in the area of marital property law which are in need of regulation or re-regulation, and discusses a few questions of child-parent relationships and of a reform in children's rights as related to some of the requirements enunciated in the U.N. Convention of Children's Rights.

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involved benefit to a great extent. It is a good opportunity for students who wish to work in the educational field, to be confronted with the reality of migrant children and their families of various social classes they are not familiar with. It can

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Irodalom/References 1 Bjarnasson, T., Andersson, B., Choquet, M., Elekes, Zs., Morgan, M. & Rapinett, G. (2003) Alcohol, Culture, Family Stucture and Adolescent

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