To elucidate the physiological mechanism of salt stress mitigated by cinnamic acid (CA) and fish flour (FF) pretreatment, wheat was pretreated with 20, 50 and 100 ppm CA and 1 g/10 mL FF for 2 d and was then cultivated. We investigated whether exogenous CA + FF could protect wheat from salt stress and examined whether the protective effect was associated with the regulation of seed vigor, antioxidant defense systems, phenolic biosynthesis and lipid peroxidation. At 2 days exogenous CA did not influence seed vigor. Salt stress increased the phenolic biosynthesis, but the CA + FF-combined pretreatment enhanced the phenolic biosynthesis even more under salt stress and decreased lipid peroxidation to some extent, enhancing the tolerance of wheat to salt stress.
Genotype selection based on multiple traits in multi-years is frequently influenced by unpredictable rainfed conditions. The main objective of the study was to apply the new methodology of genotype by yield*trait (GYT) biplot for genotype selection and trait profiles in durum wheat genotypes based on multi-traits and multi-year data under rainfed conditions of Iran. A superiority index was applied based on GYT table for ranking of genotypes by the mean of all traits. The GYT biplot ranked the genotypes based on their levels in combining yield with other key traits. Grain yield was combined with target traits and showed the strengths and weaknesses of each genotype. Based on GYT-biplots the relationships among the studied traits were not repeatable across years, but they facilitated visual genotype comparisons and selection. The breeding lines G13, G10 and G15 ranked as the best in combination of the morph-physiological traits i.e., SPAD-reading, early heading, flag-leaf length and number of grain per spike with grain yield under rainfed conditions. The results indicate that there is a potential for simultaneous improvement of some characteristics of durum wheat under rainfed conditions. The GYT biplot was a useful tool for exploring the combination of yield with traits and trait profiles of the durum genotypes to obtain high genetic gains in the durum breeding programs.
Authors:Lili Kandra, Judit Remenyik, Gyöngyi Gyémánt, A. Lipták, A. Lipták, and A. Lipták
To elucidate how temperature effects subsite mapping of a thermostable a-amylase from Bacillus licheniformis (BLA), a comparative study was performed by using 2-chloro-4-nitrophenyl (CNP) b-maltooligosides with degree of polymerisation (DP) 4-10 as model substrates. Action patterns, cleavage frequencies and subsite binding energies were determined at 50 °C, 80 °C and 100 °C. Subsite map at 80 °C indicates more favourable bindings compared to the hydrolysis at 50 °C. Hydrolysis at 100 °C resulted in a clear shift in the product pattern and suggests significant differences in the active site architecture. Two preferred cleavage modes were seen for all substrates in which subsite (+2) and (+3) were dominant, but CNP-G1 was never formed. In the preferred binding mode of shorter oligomers, CNP-G2 serves as the leaving group (79%, 50%, 59% and 62% from CNP-G4, CNP-G5, CNP-G6 and CNP-G7, respectively), while CNP-G3 is the dominant hydrolysis product from CNP-G8, CNP-G9, and CNP-G10 (62%, 68% and 64%, respectively). The high binding energy value (-17.5 kJ/mol) found at subsite (+2) is consistent with the significant formation of CNP-G2. Subsite mapping at 80 °C and 100 °C confirms that there are no further binding sites despite the presence of longer products.
The effect of the foliar fertilizer Campofort Special-Zn (CSZn) and the plant growth regulator Rastim 30 DKV (RM) on growth, yield parameters and seed protein content was studied in mung bean [
(L.) Wilczek] plants grown under greenhouse and field conditions. CSZn at a dose of 10 l per ha, and RM at doses of 3, 30 and 60 g per ha were applied alone or in combination (before flowering and 14 days after first application). The initiation of flowering and ripening processes and the chlorophyll content Chl (
) were evaluated. At harvest, total yield and yield components (number of pods per plant, seed number per pod, single pod mass, seed mass per pod), germination of seeds and seed protein content were determined. RM applied alone induced intensive flowering, increased the number of pods and yield components per plant, accelerated the ripening of the pods, increased the Chl content in the leaves and delayed senescence in treated plants. The mixture of RM with CSZn (60 g + 10 l per ha) and RM alone at a dose of 60 g per ha had a retarding and morphogenic effect on the growth of treated plants and also decreased the protein content and germination of the seeds. The best results for all studied parameters were achieved in the field at a dose of 30 g RM + 10 l CSZn and under greenhouse conditions at a dose of 3 g RM + 10 l CSZn.
Authors:Elham Khataee, Farah Karimi, and Khadijeh Razavi
under stress conditions has never been investigated, but it seems to have a pattern similar to PRX1 , DAT , and STR. Zhang’s report has also proved that exogenous MJ causes an upregulation of many genes such as G10H , TDC , STR , D4H , etc., in