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North-Eastern Part of the Carpathian Basin in the 16th to 19th Centuries] . Ethnographia 84 ( 1-2 ): 53 – 79 . Balogh , István 1958 Pusztai legeltetési rend Debrecenben a XVIII–XIX.században [Grazing Arrangements on the Plains in Debrecen in

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Puszta is a widely known phenomenon that primarily denotes a deserted countryside and not the flat areas, vegetation, cattle grazing and some picturesque landscape items that are usually associated with. In Southern Transdanubia, a borderline during Ottoman rule for 143 years, settlement desertion became a crucial and overwhelming factor from 1543 to 1686. My paper addresses the age of reorganization (1686–1720), right after the Ottomans were defeated, and focuses on land use and the general appearance of the land. There are two major views on this situation. Some historians hold that the elaboration took place in a scarcely populated and “wild,” natural area, thus the process of colonization was inevitable. Meanwhile, other scholars who worked with local archival sources have pointed out that plenty of families survived there whose livelihood changed during the Ottoman occupation but they filled the land with human activities. This resulted in a different type of land structure, which was far from the so-called medieval landscape.

In my paper I follow the second theory and depict the landscape in a minor area on the basis of archival data. I analyze the practices of land use in order to show the way the “puszta” did and did not exist. I also investigate the key factors that affected a new landscape shift, which brought about the colonial landscape.

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All over the world, rural communities developed mainly stable and sustainable, traditional (extensive) land use systems to manage natural resources. Resource management and related traditional ecological knowledge based on understanding of the functioning of the ecosystem help local communities to maintain important resources, like forests. Forest plays an important socio-economic role in the life of rural communities. Wood is one of the most elemental raw materials used in households, but its non-timber benefits play just as important a role.

We examined sustainable use of forests in a Csángó community in Gyimes region (Eastern Carpathians, Romania), providing insights into attitudes within folk forestry towards natural resources, driving forces, and changes in human relations with the forest.

Wood as a raw material is a resource that largely determines the daily life of the Csángó community, while non-timber products (e.g., forest grazing, forest fruits, herbs) play a complementary, yet important role in Gyimes life. The survey of forest flora and vegetation confirms that Gyimes farmers are familiar with the plant species that reach significant coverage in the canopy, shrub and herbaceous layers, they are well versed in the forest types occurring in the landscape, their dynamics, their most characteristic stages in the succession after felling. Overuse is an undisputed and acknowledged part of the forest-management, threatens social-ecological system-flexibility. As long as natural systems are able to renew themselves (forests can regenerate), there is chance for the further use of this important resource and in a broader context there is chance for the survival of the local community as well.

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-Leber and B. Tiefenbacher (eds.) Romani V. Papers from the Annual Meeting of the Gypsy Lore Society, Graz 2011 . Graz : Grazer Romani Publikationen (GRP02) . 29 – 4 . Boretzky

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Acta Archaeologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae
Authors: Beáta Tugya, Katalin Náfrádi, Sándor Gulyás, Tünde Törőcsik, Balázs Pál Sümegi, Péter Pomázi, and Pál Sümegi

Lake; only a temporary, swampy area is marked. An abandoned, over-developed, unregulated curve of Tisza River can be reconstructed from its drawing ( Fig. 2 ). In other parts of the area scattered gardens, arable lands, grazing fields representing

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Participatory Landscape Classification and Biodiversity Assessment and Monitoring of Grazing Lands in Northern Kenya . Journal of Environmental Management 90 : 673 – 682 . Roba , Hassan G. – Oba , Gufu 2009 b Efficacy of Integrating Herder Knowledge

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transformations in animal husbandry. Tracts of land combined in the course of farm- reallocation were used by mid-sized and large estates for independent shepherding while smallholders could only acquire grazing land with great difficulty and despite collaboration

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same way as he shared out captives, livestock and other booty. He then set aside one fifth of the agricultural and grazing lands, and did likewise with the captives and livestock. Of the regions conquered by the sword and expropriated by the Muslims, no

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cleared, and the vicinity of the oxbow lake was likely used for grazing animals. This might be the reason also for the absence of the more demanding hydrophytes as well. The grazing and trampling animals pushed back the more demanding species, hence we

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forests, and he [red deer] quietly lives there. It comes, grazes, goes back and quietly lives in that forest.” (b. ca. 1950) 8 “I think it’s a disadvantage to live next to the border; there are no shops here, nothing… certainly a disadvantage. And because

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