Authors:F. Ditrói, S. Takács, F. Tárkányi, E. Corniani, R. Smith, M. Jech, and T. Wopelka
In the present work we demonstrate the development of a thin layer activation (TLA) method to be able to measure micrometer
wear or less by using radioactive tracing. In order to activate very swallow depths we decreased the bombarding energy to
the “linear” region of the cross-section curve. The disadvantage of the method is that the wear curve will be “linear” near
to the surface instead of “constant” as is the case with the usual (high energy) TLA. The advantage is that the activity of
the sample will be much lower and it is concentrated in the swallower studied depth. The other possible method is irradiation
under small angle (15 to 30° or even grazing incidence), which also causes a near-surface concentration of the activity produced.
Both methods are demonstrated with the most suitable nuclear reactions and some commonly used industrial materials.
Authors:M. Cooper, P. Clarke, W. Robertson, I. McPharlin, and R. Jeffrey
Sandy soils of the coastal plain area of Western Australia have poor phosphorous retention capacity which leads to pollution of surface water bodies in the region. Application of bauxite mining residues (termed red mud) to vegetable and crops has been proposed as a solution to increase the phosphorous and water retention and thereby reduce the leaching of nutrients. The thorium and radium-226 concentrations in the red mud residues are in excess of 1 kBq/kg and 300 Bq/kg, respectively. Potentially, the use of these residues on agricultural land could result in increased levels of radionuclides in food crops grown in amended soils. The transfer of long-lived radionuclides of both the natural thorium and uranium series to a variety of vegetable crops grown under controlled conditions is investigated. The effects of varying the rates of application of red mud and phosphate fertilisers on radionuclide uptake are studied. It has been shown previously that fallout caesium-137 in sandy soils of the region transfers readily to food and grazing crops. Some of the parameters which influence that transfer are also examined.
Authors:Tóth Eszter, Dencső Márton, Pirkó Béla, Bakacsi Zsófia, and Koós Sándor
, J.R. 2016 . Ammonia flux into the atmosphere from a grazed pasture. Science, New series . 185 . 609 – 610 DIRECTIVE (EU) 2016/2284 on the reduction of national emissions of certain atmospheric pollutants , FAMULARI , D ., FOWLER , D
Authors:Timo Hatanpää, Kaupo Kukli, Mikko Ritala, and Markku Leskelä
the films exceeding 50 nm and grown on glass substrates were evaluated from the transmission spectra measured by a Hitachi U2000 spectrophotometer [ 28 ]. The film structure was determined using Bruker D8 Advance X-ray diffractometer in grazing
Authors:Imre Miklós Szilágyi, Eero Santala, Mikko Heikkilä, Marianna Kemell, Timur Nikitin, Leonid Khriachtchev, Markku Räsänen, Mikko Ritala, and Markku Leskelä
PANalytical X’pert Pro MPD X-ray diffractometer using Cu K α radiation and grazing incidence angle mode.
The morphology of the nanofibers was investigated by a Hitachi S-4800 field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM).
Authors:A. Qawasmeh, C. Bourke, S. Lee, M. Gray, W. Wheatley, N. J. Sucher, and A. Raman
Profiles of volatile secondary metabolites (VSM) in Mediterranean and Continental Festuca arundinacea, either endophyte free or infected with the fungal endophyte Neotyphodium coenophialum strain AR542, were determined using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The profile of VSM in the endophyte-free Mediterranean F. arundinacea germplasm was similar to that of endophyte-free Continental F. arundinacea germplasm. However, the VSM profile in AR542-infected Mediterranean F. arundinacea was different to that in AR542-infected Continental F. arundinacea. Compound 1, identified as N-acetylnorloline, was detected in AR542-infected Mediterranean F. arundinacea as being sevenfold greater compared with its level in AR542-infected Continental F. arundinacea. Levels of compounds 2, 4, and 5 detected in AR542-infected Mediterranean F. arundinacea were significantly lower when compared with their levels in the AR542-infected Continental F. arundinacea. Levels of compound 3 were similar in both germplasms infected with endophyte strain AR542. The levels of compounds 2, 4, and 5 but not compound 3 were different between AR542 infected and endophyte free depending on germplasm. On the basis of the mass spectra obtained, compounds 2, 3, 4, and 5 were identified as tridecanoic acid methyl ester, n-capric acid, 11, 14, 17-eicosatrienoic acid, and linoleic acid ethyl ester, respectively. Our results highlight key differences between the Mediterranean and Continental germplasms. Comparison of the VSM of AR542-infected Mediterranean F. arundinacea with AR542-infected Continental F. arundinacea showed that there are quantitative differences between the two germplasms. These differences, which may impact on grazing systems involving horses, most probably arose as a result of intrinsic genetic differences between the two germplasms and are yet to be indentified.