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Abstract  

Roman ancient mortars have been widely studied, in connection with both diagnosis and application required for restoring. Thermoanalytical experiments performed on mortars from Pompeii and Herculaneum provided a very good understanding of the technology employed. The mortars from Pompeii were obtained by the proper mixing of lime and marble grains while mortars of Herculaneum by lime and silicates compounds. The position of the endothermic peak of calcite decomposition showed important variations in the different samples studied, which was assigned to the different crystallinity and particle sizes. Experiments under CO2 flow confirmed the presence of magnesium calcium carbonates.

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Abstract  

Mortars taken from the walls of three historical buildings in Seville: Pond of Patio de las Doncellas in Real Alcazar of Seville, the Monastery of Santa Maria de las Cuevas and the Church of El Salvador were investigated. The techniques employed were thermogravimetry (TG), differential thermal analysis (DTA), XRD, FTIR, SEM with EDAX, Bernard calcimeter, granulometry, mercury intrusion porosimetry and mechanical strength tests. The majority of the studied mortars consist of calcite and silica. Gypsum was detected in samples of four mortars from the Santa Maria de las Cuevas Monastery and two from the El Salvador Church, whose samples were taken from the upper layers of the walls, but gypsum was not detected in the internal mortars layers. Only in two of the samples of the Monastery, the presence of cellulosic material as an organic additive was detected. All the studied mortars could be regarded hydraulic, so much by results from ratios between mass loss due to CO2 and H2O, hydraulic module and assays of compressive strength. The values obtained by these three techniques are related, providing good agreements between them. These results give useful information that aids in understanding the technology of historic mortars, and how to plan the restoration of these wall paintings.

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Introduction The chemical, mineralogical and structural characterisation of historic mortars can shed light to the provenance of raw materials and the technological practice, but can also help in the restoration and

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relics can be viewed in the microstructure of historic mortars, inferring causes originating in poor grinding of early natural cements and in hand mixing of mortars [ 2 ]. The sand (S) from coastal areas was contaminated with iron pyrite (Py). The pore (P

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masonry . In: Bartos P , Groot C , Hughes JJ , editors. Historic mortars: characteristics and tests. Paisley; . 1999 . p. 227 – 36 . 11. Rodriques PF

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. 10. Moropoulou , A , Bakolas , A , Bisbikou , K . Characterization of ancient, byzantine and later historic mortars by thermal and X-ray diffraction techniques . Thermochim Acta 1995 269 /270 779 – 795 10

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Thermal study of unaltered and altered dolomitic rock samples from ancient monuments

The case of Villarcayo de Merindad de Castilla la Vieja (Burgos, Spain)

Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: J. L. Perez-Rodriguez, A. Duran, and L. A. Perez-Maqueda

-005-0943-8 . 41. Moropoulou , A , Bakolas , A , Bisbikou , K . Investigation of the technology of historic mortars . J Cult Herit . 2000 ; 1 : 45 – 58 . 10.1016/S1296-2074(99)00118-1 . 42

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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: Isabel Galan, Carmen Andrade, and Marta Castellote

– 3186 10.1021/es903581d . 18. Moropoulou , A , Bakolas , A , Bisbikou , K 1995 Characterization of ancient, byzantine and later historic mortars by thermal and X-ray diffraction

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