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Central European Geology
Authors: Ádám Bede, Roderick B. Salisbury, András István Csathó, Péter Czukor, Dávid Gergely Páll, Gábor Szilágyi, and Pál Sümegi

The Ecse-halom is a burial mound (kurgan) in the Hortobágy region of Hungary. Built in the Late Copper Age/Early Bronze Age by nomadic people from the east, it now stands on the border between two modern settlements. A road of medieval origin runs along this border and cuts deeply into the body of the mound. The southern half of the mound was plowed and used as a rice field, and later a military observation tower was built on top of it. Despite this disturbance, the surface of the mound is in decent condition and provides a home for regionally significant, species-rich loess steppe vegetation. The mound comprises two construction layers as indicated by magnetic susceptibility and thin-section micro-morphological analysis. Examination of organic compounds and carbonate content at various levels showed different values, which suggest a variety of natural and anthropogenic stratigraphic layers. Mid-sized siltstone fraction is dominant in the section. The layers originate from the immediate vicinity of the mound, but have different characteristics than present-day soils. These mounds contain a valuable record of cultural and environmental conditions occurring at the time of their construction, and also serve as a refuge for ancient loess vegetation; therefore their conservation is highly recommended.

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Central European Geology
Authors: István Vető, Katalin Báldi, Stjepan Ćorić, Magdolna Hetényi, Attila Demény, and István Futó

seagrass or more likely benthic algae based on the foraminifera morphotypes present in the material ( Langer 1993 ; Drinia et al. 2005 ; Mateu-Vicens 2014 ). This vegetation, providing a home to the epiphytic foraminifera, needs light for photosynthesis

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A map of the district surrounding the largest lake in Norway was published in 1796 by the Topographical Society of Norway. Their members contributed private funds for this unique map and for the publication of the Topographical Journal, containing multidisciplinary descriptions, including environmental, of many regions of the country. The map was produced by lieutenant Niels S Darre, a military surveyor and cartographer, as a private undertaking in his own home district. The geodetic reference point of the map is the church at Vang, the position of which had been determined by repeated astronomical observations by its vicar, Abraham Pihl. He had been trained as an astronomical observer by professor Thomas Bugge at the Round Tower Observatory in Copenhagen. A supporting latitude determination in Lillehammer is also noted on the map, obtained by Maximilian Hell in 1769 on his return from Vardø in Northern Norway to Vienna after a successful observation of the transit of Venus. The observed magnetic deviation from astronomically determined north is given. The map also identifies a marker of the great flood of the river Glomma in 1789, causing environmental and social devastation. We have digitized the map and compared it to a 67 km × 82 km section of a modern, digitized topographical map of Norway, by transforming the UTM projection to a meridian through the church at Vang. While most features coregister acceptably by visual inspections of the old and new maps, we note geometrical deviations of up to 1 km in the locations of western shorelines.

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Geographie und Kartographie 2000 13 158 Riedl A 2003: Hyperglobe — alpha test site (internet), http://hal.gis.univie.ac.at/hyperglobe/html/home

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