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. In Japan, it had been not mandatory to list cited documents in patent applications until the information disclosure system for prior art documents was introduced in September 2002 (Sato and Iwayama 2006 ). Moreover, even when prior art was listed

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market value from the results of universities and public research institutes to obtain a return on R&D investment?” The case of a nonprofit research institute of Japan could provide a partial answer to this question. Though many universities and public

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References Japan Science Support Foundation 2001 Gakkai Meikan 2002–03 (Directory of Academic Societies) View Pro Inc

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fill in this gap, this study aims to provide quantitative information on funding distribution, especially focusing on the individual level. To this end, I draw on a national grant database in the Japanese academia, which covers the majority of the

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Abstract  

An attempt is made to clarify the relationships among disciplines by examining the flow of citation and the migration of scholars in the humanities and social sciences in Japan. The results of both methods are consistent with each other. In humanities and social sciences in Japan, distinct hierarchical relationships are recognized between disciplines offering much information to other disciplines and disciplines obtaining much information from other disciplines.

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Abstract  

The purpose of this survey is to study the present state and an evaluation of research activities in the field of life sciences in Japan. Based on the 5,107 papers from Japan in 1989 CD-ROM ofExcerpta Medica, a quantitative analysis to determine the present state of research activities in life sciences was conducted. There were 7 journals in which more than 50 papers by Japanese authors were published.Brain Research stood first. The ranking list of contributed papers demonstrates a preference of Japanese researchers' interest in international journals from commerical publishers rather than in society journals for the publication of their papers overseas. In view of the number of papers and the paper output per head, research activities of organizations were evaluated. The three national medical schools in Kyushu, Osaka, and Kyoto hold ranked high. A comparison between national medical schools and private medical schools shows that the former have higher productivities. Private medical schools were generally inactive, and they emphasized clinical activities more than research activites.

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Abstract  

A comparison of sources cited in the Japanese language Geographical Review of Japan and six western language, Japanese geographical serials reveals that while both cite the same proportion of foreign sources (a third), authors tend to select Japanese sources which are written in the language of the host publication. Foreign sources in the Japanese literature are overwhelmingly from the English language world, especially the United States, with a small admixture in German, from the F.R. Germany. The proportion of foreign sources in the Japanese literature appears to be in decline.

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Introduction What principle dominates the university teachers’ transferring and promotion? Cummings 1971 critically examined the idea that the boss system worked in the Japanese universities, and that the system gave the

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Abstract  

The purpose of this survey is to review the present situation of the referee systems of 55 English-language scientific journals in Japan, and to evaluate their quality and international readership of those journals. Based on this survey, the author discusses some editorial efforts which may promote the greater use worldwide.

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the Japanese name “SOUSEI” (meaning innovation or creation) and for the string “CREAT” for creative. The phrase CRIS BLDG had to be combined with logical NOT with (ii) in order to exclude references merely to the CRIS Building that also houses

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