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The paper aims to investigate student translation processes from the second and third language (L2 and L3), with particular regard to self-revision. The authors report on a study conducted to test the following two hypotheses: a) The distribution of student self-revisions, i.e. in which phase of the process they occur, is primarily related to individual working habits and not to language pair; b) The type and quantity of self-revisions primarily depend on whether the student is working from his/her L2 or L3. The study is designed as a series of experiments involving students translating comparable texts (two sections of the same text produced by an EU institution of which multiple language versions exist) from their L2 (English) and L3 (Swedish) into their first language (Croatian). The processes are recorded with the help of a keystroke logging program (Translog). The type, number and distribution of self-revisions are analyzed. The findings suggest that the distribution of revisions over the phases may indeed be related to individual subjects’ habitual behavior. With regard to the expectation that the type and quantity of self-revisions primarily depend on SL competence, the findings do not provide a consistent picture.

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resulting from the parallel activation of two languages”. They classify translators as a subclass of bilinguals, arguing that the difference between second language (L2) communication and translation lies in the so-called descriptive and interpretive

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. Flege , James Emil . 1987 . The instrumental study of L2 speech production: Some methodological considerations . L anguage Learning 37 . 285 – 296 . Flege , James Emil

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– 216 . Caruana , S. 2003 . Mezzi di comunicazione e input linguistico. L’acquisizione dell’italiano L2 a Malta . Milano : Franco Angeli

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This study focuses on the notions of explicitation and implicitation in translation and aims to provide empirical evidence for operational asymmetry (Klaudy 2001). Bi-directional (SL=L1→TL=L2 and SL=L2→TL=L1) comparisons show that when explicitation takes place in the L1→L2 direction, implicitation can be observed in the L2→L1 direction. This phenomenon is referred to as symmetric explicitation. It may also happen, however, that when explicitation is carried out in the L1→L2 direction, no implicitation occurs in the L2→L1 direction. This phenomenon is referred to as asymmetric explicitation. It would be logical to suppose that all cases of language-specific explicitation in the L1→L2 direction are symmetrical (i.e., matched by implicitation in the L2→L1 direction), but this does not seem to be the case. The present paper reports on the findings of an empirical study designed to investigate the validity of the asymmetry hypothesis in the translation of reporting verbs in literary texts translated from English into Hungarian and from Hungarian into English. Using the method of two-way qualitative translation analysis, the study demonstrates that translators tend to prefer the more explicit forms to the more implicit ones in both directions and often fail to perform implicitation. The study may thus provide further evidence for the assumption that semantic explicitation is in fact a universal translation strategy.

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. Personality Structure and Measurement . London : Routledge . Forsberg Lundell , F. & Sandgren , M. 2013 . High-level Proficiency in Late L2 Acquisition: Relationships

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Acta Linguistica Hungarica
Authors: Károly Bibok, Julia Coryell, and Saihua Xia

Book reviews of the following works: Istvan Kecskes: Situation-bound utterances in L1 and L2 (Studies on language acquisition, vol. 19). Mouton de Gruyter, Berlin & New York, 2003; Enikő Németh T. and Károly Bibok (eds): Pragmatics and the flexibility of word meaning} (Current research in the semantics\per pragmatics interface, vol. 8). Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2001.

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. Ammar A. & Spada , N. 2006 . One Size Fits All? Recasts, Prompts and L2 learning . Studies in Second Language Acquisition Vol. 28 . 543 – 574

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Benjamins . 69 – 93 . Krings , H. P. 1986 . Translation Problems and Translation Strategies of Advanced German Learners of French (L2) . In: House , J. & Blum

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. Ghia , E. 2011 . The Acquisition of L2 Syntax through Audiovisual Translation . In: Serban , A. , Matamala , A. & Lavaur , J.-M. (eds) Audiovisual Translation in Close-Up: Practical and Theoretical Approaches . Bern

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