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. This is surprising for two reasons. First, lifelong learning in developed economies is currently being given an unprecedented amount of consideration ( Billett, 2018 ); second, second-language (L2) autonomy research seems to have neglected its origins

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Background and aims

Social casino games (SCGs) feature gambling themes and are typically free to download and play with optional in-game purchases. Although few players spend money, this is sufficient to make them profitable for game developers. Little is known about the profile and motivations of paying players as compared to non-paying players.


This study compared the characteristics of 521 paying and non-paying Australian social casino game players who completed an online survey.


Paying players were more likely to be younger, male, speak a non-English language, and have a university education than non-payers. Paying players were more likely to be more highly involved in SCG in terms of play frequency and engagement with games and emphasized social interaction more strongly as a motivation for playing. A cluster analysis revealed distinct subgroups of paying players; these included more frequent moderate spenders who made purchases to avoid waiting for credits and to give gifts to friends as well as less frequent high spenders who made purchases to increase the entertainment value of the game.


These findings suggest that paying players have some fundamental differences from non-paying players and high spenders are trying to maximize their enjoyment, while non-spenders are content with the game content they access.


Given the structural similarities between SCG and online gambling, understanding subgroups of players may have broader implications, including identifying characteristics of gamers who may also engage in gambling and players who may develop problems related to excessive online gaming.

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me to explore the teacher’s role in generating and maintaining the motivation of adult learners of English in a corporate environment. This article, therefore, addresses this neglected area of L2 motivation research by presenting the results of an

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Adult L2 learner autonomy The idea of this special issue on adult autonomy in the field of second-language teaching and learning was born in response to shifting sociocultural and educational circumstances that have taken place

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undertaking their practicum. Self-determination theory ( Ryan & Deci, 2000 ) and the L2 motivational self-system theory ( Dörnyei, 2005 ) provide the major theoretical underpinning for the research; they were selected due to their hypothesized relevance to the

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very different ways ” ( Smith & Strong, 2009 , p. 1). In addition, adult L2 learners are effective users of their mother tongue and represent a huge variety of individuals ranging from immigrants and refugees to international students and professionals

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. Motivation For tapping into the FL learning motivation of the school sample, Dörnyei’s ( 2005 ) model of language learners’ motivational self system comprising the person’s ideal L2 self, ought-to L2 self, and language-learning experience was used

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successful language learners can master their second language (L2) seemingly quickly and easily and why unsuccessful students are inclined to face obstacles during their language learning also seems to be a challenging issue. Therefore, the attempt to find

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function) ranging from 0 to 1 and it uses L2 regularization for its weights. Model evaluation To evaluate the machine learning models, we used the area under the curve (AUC), accuracy, and F1 score, which are typically used in a binary classification

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-014-0752-2 . 10.1007/s11136-014-0752-2 Piniel , K . ( 2017 ). Measuring Foreign Language anxiety related to the four language skills: A study using Rasch analysis . Unpublished manuscript . Piniel , K. , & Csizér , K . ( 2013 ). L2 motivation, anxiety and

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