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The present study was carried out during the three successive growing seasons of 1996, 1997 and 1998 to estimate the additive, dominance and epistatic components of genetic variation for the yield, yield components and wilt infection by using ninety triple test cross families and their parents, F1 and F2 in four sesame crosses. A randomized complete block design with three replications was used. The results indicated that mean squares of the genetic analysis of variance and the overall epistatic gene effects for the crosses showed highly significant differences for all studied characters. The [i] type (additive × additive) was considered as a major component of the overall epistatic effects for 1000-seed weight in the TTC3 cross, wilt infection percentage in TTC3 and TTC4, number of capsules/plant in TTC1, TTC2 and TTC4 and seed yield/plant in all crosses. The ratio of (H/D)1 for all crosses confirms the presence of partial dominance for all studied traits. The direction of dominance was positive and significant for wilt infection in TTC4, oil percentage in TTC1 and TTC4, number of capsules/plant and 1000-seed weight in TTC2 and seed yield/plant in all four crosses. The results also revealed that the highest proportion of recombinant lines was obtained for number of capsules/plant, 1000-seed weight and oil percentage in the TTC2 cross and for seed yield/plant in TTC3.

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Acta Botanica Hungarica
Authors: C. Çi̇rak, M. Odabaş, A. Ayan, B. Sağlam, and K. Kevseroğlu

The genus Hypericum has attracted scientific interest for recent years, since it is a source of a variety of compounds including hypericin. The present study was conducted out to develop leaf area prediction models for some Hypericum species containing hypericin, namely H. pruinatum, H. perfoliatum, H. aviculariifolium subsp. depilatum var. depilatum (endemic), H. montanum, H. montbretii, H. linarioides, H. triquetrifolium, H. bithynicum and H. perforatum growing wild in Northern Turkey. Lamina width, length and leaf area were measured without destroying to develop the models. The actual leaf areas of the plants were measured by Placom digital planimeter, and multiple regression analysis with Excel 7.0 computer package program was performed for the plants separately. The produced leaf area prediction models in the present study were formulised as LA = (a) + (b 1 × L) + [b 2 × (L × W)] + (b 3 × L 2 ) + (b 4 × W 2 ) + [b 5 × (L × W 2 ] + [b 6 × (L 2 × W)] + [b 7 × (L 2 + W 2 )] where LA is leaf area, Wis leaf width, L is leaf length and a, b 1 , b 2 , b 3 , b 4 , b 5 , b 6 , and b 7 are coefficients. R 2 values varied with species from 0.80 in H. aviculariifolium subsp. depilatum var. depilatum to 0.97 in H. pruinatum . All R 2 values and standard errors were found to be significant at the p < 0.001 level.

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The aim of the current investigation was to investigate the effect of photoperiod on thyroid activity in soft-shelled turtles ( Lissemys punctata punctata ). Thirty days exposure of short photoperiod with 2L: 22D increased relative weight, follicular epithelial height and peroxidase activity of the thyroid gland; whereas exposure of long photoperiod with 22L: 2D for 30 days showed reversed changes to those of the short photoperiod in adult female turtles. These findings indicate that short photoperiod stimulates thyroid activity and long photoperiod inhibits its activity in soft-shelled turtles. It is suggested that photoperiod exerts its action on thyroid activity presumably via gonads and/or pineal-gonadal axis in turtles.

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Direct somatic embryo formation (without intervening callus) from garlic clove basal tissue was induced in which the influence of plant growth regulators (PGRs) on various explants was examined. Medium added with 2.0 mg/l 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) and 0.5 mg/l 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) were the most effective PGR combination for somatic embryo induction. It induced embryos directly in 85.5% of the basal clove explant. Callus induction was also obtained from other parts of explant and 2.0 mg/l 2,4-D induced callusing in 86.5% of the inoculated explants. Protein, amino acid and alliin content were measured in callus and in embryos. Somatic embryos had more soluble protein and free amino acid compared to callus. HPTLC analysis revealed that alliin was significantly high in somatic embryos compared to undifferentiated callus tissue; the content was even more in older embryos. The present study of Allium indicates that the event of morphogenetic development including in vitro embryogeny can effectively be analysed by monitoring the changes of biochemical profiles.

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The present study was conducted to determine the reactions of 88 bread wheat pure lines selected from landraces collected in Central Anatolian Region of Turkey against leaf rust (Puccinia triticina) under field conditions in 7 locations. GGE biplot analysis was used to determine the reactions of landrace genotypes against the disease. The GGE biplot explained 73.89% of total variation. Among the experimental locations, 6 (except for E3) were placed close to each other over the biplot graph, indicating two apparent mega-environments. The GGE biplot visually displayed the resistance and stability of the pure lines to leaf rust. The landrace genotypes L18, L19, L45, and L2 were identified as the most resistant/stable genotypes in all environments and L31 and L56 were the most susceptible/stable genotypes.

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Cereal Research Communications
Authors: H.Y. Li, Z.L. Li, X.X. Zeng, L.B. Zhao, G. Chen, C.L. Kou, S.Z. Ning, Z.W. Yuan, Y.L. Zheng, D.C. Liu, and L.Q. Zhang

High-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GSs) are important seed storage proteins associated with bread-making quality in common wheat (Triticum aestivum L., 2n = 6x = 42, AABBDD). Variation in the Glu-A1x locus in common wheat is scare. Diploid Triticum monococcum ssp. monococcum (2n = 2x = 14, AmAm) is the first cultivated wheat. In the present study, allelic variations at the Glu-A1 m x locus were systematically investigated in 197 T. monococcum ssp. monococcum accessions. Out of the 8 detected Glu-A1 m x alleles, 5 were novel, including Glu-A1 m-b, Glu-A1 m-c, Glu-A1 m-d, Glu-A1 m-g, and Glu-A1 m-h. This diversity is higher than that of common wheat. Compared with 1Ax1 and 1Ax2*, which are present in common wheat, these alleles contained three deletions/insertions as well as some single nucleotide polymorphism variations that might affect the elastic properties of wheat flour. New variations in T. monococcum probably occurred after the divergence between A and Am and are excluded in common wheat populations. These allelic variations could be used as novel resources to further improve wheat quality.

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Due to the global land use and climate change, endangerment of natural vegetation is increasing. That is why the threatening factors were documented in details during the MÉTA mapping. We have documented the impacts of water management, land use (management of woodlands and grasslands), the invasive species, urbanisation, habitat fragmentation and the neighbourhood, as well. In the present article (1) we evaluate the actual state of the habitats by the 28 threat types documented during the MÉTA mapping; (2) we introduce 12 newly developed indicators, which were applied for the semi-quantitative comparison of the overall degree of endangerment of the Hungarian habitats.Based on the summarisation of our results the most seriously endangered habitats in Hungary are as follows: sand and loess steppe oak woodlands (M2, M4, L2x), tussock sedge communities (B4), extensive orchards (P7), closed lowland oak woodlands (L5, L6), water-fringing and fen tall herb communities (D5), wooded pastures (P45), vegetation of loess cliffs (I2), rich fens and Molinia meadows (D1, D2), Cynosurion grasslands and Nardus swards (E34), swamp woodlands (J2), xero-mesophilous grasslands (H4) and salt steppe oak woodlands (M3).The least endangered types are the rocky habitats (I4, LY3, H1, G2, M7), certain halophytic (F1a, F5, F1b, F2, B6) and aquatic habitats (A23, A3a, A1), open acidophilous woodlands (L4b), dry shrub vegetation with Crataegus and Prunus spinosa (P2b) and the beech woodlands (K5).

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Endophytic phosphorus- and potassium-solubilizing bacteria were screened from the root, rhizome, stem, and leaves of Moso Bamboo, and their diversity was analyzed using their 16S rDNA sequences. Twenty endophytic phosphorus and potassium-solubilizing bacteria were screened from 82 bamboo plants, among which the CT-B09-2, WYS-A01-1 and JL-B06 had higher activities in decomposing organophosphates. The three species showed a decomposition diameter/colony diameter (D/d) of 5.05, 4.19 and 2.95, respectively, and a solubilizing activity of 81.77 mg/L, 77.85 mg/L and 63.69 mg/L, respectively. JL-B06, WYS-A01-1 and CT-B09-2 had higher activities in decomposing inorganic phosphorus, with a decomposition diameter/colony diameter (D/d) of 2.34, 2.12 and 1.82, respectively, and a solubilizing activity of 30.58 mg/L, 38.89 mg/L and 48.35 mg/L, respectively. CT-B21, WYS-A03-1 and JL-B06 had higher activities in decomposing potassium, with a decomposition diameter/colony diameter (D/d) of 3.37, 4.84 and 4.33, respectively, and a solubilizing activity of 2.81 mg/L, 2.54 mg/L and 2.46 mg/L, respectively. The 16S rDNA sequence analysis showed that the 20 phosphorus- and potassium-solubilizing bacteria belong to 14 species from 10 genera, and mainly consist of Alcaligenes spp., Enterobacter spp. and Bacillus spp. Our results demonstrate the abundant diversity of endophytic phosphorus- and potassiumsolubilizing bacteria in Moso Bamboo.

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Acta Botanica Hungarica
Authors: S. Y. Kondratyuk, L. Lőkös, M.-H. Jeong, S.-O. Oh, A. S. Kondratiuk, and J.-S. Hur

(Teloschistaceae, Ascomycota), based on molecular phylogeny . - Acta Bot. Hung . 56 ( 1-2 ): 141 – 178 . https://doi.org/10.1556/abot.56.2014.l-2.12 10.1556/ABot.56.2014.1-2.12 Kondratyuk , S. Y. , Lokos , L. , Halda , J. P. , Roux , C. , Upreti , D. K

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134 Farah, S. M. (1981): An examination of the effect of water stress on leaf growth of crops of field bean (Vicia faba L.). 2. Mineral content. — J. Agric. Sci. 96 : 337

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