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The surface charges on hematite, kaolinite and on kaolinite coated with hematite (kaolinite-hematite system) were measured and successfully described using the model (Four-Layer Model) developed by Bowden and co-workers (1977; 1980a; 1980b). The surface charge was also calculated theoretically, according to a computer program developed by Barrow (1987). Significant differences were pointed out for the surface properties of the three solids examined. Anion-specific adsorption was observed for hematite and kaolinite-hematite, and cation adsorption for kaolinite.

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This five-layered model consisting of 180 neurons is aimed at simulating some elementary functions of primary visual cortex of mammals in form detection. Its main achievements are: 1. Detection of points, lines, simple geometric figures in the V1 2. Abstraction of 19 different qualities of geometric figures 3. Simulation and rational explanation of processing of peripheral stimuli in the V1, explanation of mechanism of origin of visual ERPs, including P300 wave 4. Simulation and explanation of the nature and build up of the cognitive function within V1 and its possible relation to long-term memory 5. The model is based partly on Hebb-type synapses, illustrates the role of neuronal assemblies, sheds light on the functional relationship of excitatory and inhibitory neurons, in their conformity with special tasks of different cortical layers.

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