the middle of the west wing) is built on top of the filled in flue. 7 The upper, new floor is a hard, clayey – with mortar patches in places – floor (Period 3), on which stood a large stone mortar (at the end of the diagonal wall). Above it was the
in 1793) next to the theater for concerts and dances. Pressburg was proud to have its own brick-and-mortar theater, which was not only comfortable but safe as well. 19 Plate 1 The Municipal Theater in Pressburg Reproduced by kind permission of the
Authors:Elek Benkő, Pál Sümegi, Tünde Törőcsik, Elvira Bodor, Balázs Sümegi, and Gusztáv Jakab
environmental magnetic analyses were carried out on bulk samples at a resolution of 2 cm. Prior to the measurement, the weight of all individual samples was measured, and then each sample was crushed using a glass mortar. The samples were then oven-dried at 40°C
. 12.10 ) Grave no. 754 Without grave ditch A surface of daub was unearthed above the grave (feature no. 386). The daub surface was burnt, red, with precipitated lime grains and traces of mortar around it. It appeared already on the scraped surface
The research excavations in Brigetio at Komárom/Szőny–Vásártér between 1992–2014 unearthed a part of the civil town (municipium) with domestic buildings and workshops with several construction phases from the end of the 1st century AD to the second half of the 3rd century AD. Best preserved are the ruins from the Severan era which offer us an insight into the building techniques of the age: adobe walls with stone foundations, mortar floors, hypocaust heating systems, ceilings and vaulted ceilings, roofs covered with ceramic roof tiles, stair cases, door and window openings and wells.
The boat imprint unearthed at the site of the Benedictine abbey from Bizere (Frumuşeni, Romania) is a unique discovery for two reasons: its preservation as a negative imprint, due to its reuse for preparing mortar, and its dating back to the 12th century, based on the context of its discovery. It has been identified as a logboat, due to the absence of any technical details specific for plank boats, and now stands as the only vessel of this type with known dating for the territory of Romania. The article also enquires into the wider historical context of the discovery, thus bringing forth the archival data available with regard to medieval inland navigation.
Lili Ország visited Italy five times between 1968 and 1972. During her travels she prepared numerous sketches and drawings, which are now held at the Archives of the Hungarian National Gallery. The six sketchbooks filled during her trips to Italy are dominated by registration of the Pompeii, Herculaneum and Naples experiences, nevertheless there are pages drawn full in Rome as well. So far art history literature has only briefly touched upon these sketchbooks. The present essay, through examples of those pages where the subject of sketches has been clearly identified, intends to analyse methods of picture construction and composition in the art of Lili Ország, and also to underline the importance of Italian, especially Pompeian experience in her works.
Preponderant majority of sketches — drawn with pencil, ball-point pen or marker as aide memoires — delineate painted walls of Pompeii, yet antique sculptures, some mosaics, and as an exception to the rule a few panel paintings and papyrus scrolls also come up in the sketchbooks. Latter also serve as specific examples for borrowing motifs.
Figural scenes among Pompeian frescoes hardly fascinated Lili Ország, it was rather the system of decorative wall-panes, their colours, the changing rythm of patches (that is the third Pompeian style), and also illusionistic architectural spaces (the second style) that made her trace them religiously. In her sketches she paid attention to exact representation of proportions and composition, the expressiveness of her outlines is exceptional. She registered colours in detail, using denominations that evoque material consistence. She precisely traced all injuries of walls, including abrasion, cracks or patches of mortar. She felt only those motifs (be human figures or objects) worth of treasuring for later use, that had an air of bizarre or peculiar. She loved pictures and sculptures with mystical influences, she was interested in instruments that could reach the desirable effect (worn down green walls, fragmented stuccoes).
The majority of sculptures drawn can be characterized by abundant drapery hiding the forms of human body. Representation of human figures in general can be marked by the lack of sensual visualisation, faces are scarcely ever individualised. Expressive power of figures, their emotions, states of mind are transmitted by postures and gestures.
While she had already lit on the basic elements of her paintings well before her Italian travels, the Pompeian experience was key to further development of her composing methods. This impulse unequivocally contributed to the creation of the Labyrinth-series. The division of the wall surface into smaller units, the lapsing system of picture panes, the rythm of coulorful, often pale patches served as essential sources of inspiration.