Authors:Tassiane Matsubara, Mitiko Saiki, and Guilherme Zahn
In recent years, environmental concerns regarding antimony have grown considerably due to anthropogenic processes that have
resulted in increasing concentration of Sb in the environment, and also because of its impacts and possible adverse effects
to living organisms. Several techniques have been used, to obtain reliable results for Sb, since Sb is present at low level
concentration, requiring analytical instrumentation with low detection limits. The neutron activation analysis (NAA) technique
has a high metrological level for the determination of several elements in different matrices. However, Sb determination in
environmental and biological samples presents some analytical difficulties due to its low concentrations and gamma ray spectrum
interferences. The objective of this research was to study on Sb determination in environmental reference materials by NAA.
Ten environmental reference materials were selected and analyzed using long period irradiation at IEA-R1 research nuclear
reactor. The induced gamma activities of 122Sb and 124Sb were measured. Relative errors of the results demonstrated that the accuracy depends mainly on Sb radioisotope measured,
the decay time for counting and the sample composition.
Authors:Daniella Oliveira, Simone Simons, Ana Chudzinski-Tavassi, and Cibele Zamboni
The Amblyomma cajennense tick species is considered one of the most important and widespread species in Brazil. It salivary secretion has been a target
of several studies in biocenology, as the vector of diseases and in investigations related to antihemostatic properties and
antitumor. To complement this investigation, neutron activation analysis (NAA) was applied to determine concentrations of
elements in saliva samples of this tick species. The saliva samples (50–554 μL) were collected at Butantan Institute (São
Paulo city, Brazil) and they were investigated using the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor at IPEN/CNEN-SP-Brazil. These data were compared
with the values established for Amblyommaamericanum and Amblyomma variegatum species emphasizing agreement only for Cl, K and Na with the A. americanum species, suggesting similarities in the mechanisms that regulate the osmotic pressure in this hematophagous animal. The knowledge
of these limits contributes for tick saliva characterization as well as for the understanding of the many physiological processes,
especially those related to salivary secretion.
Authors:Cibele Zamboni, Sabrina Metairon, Laura Oliveira, Simone Simons, A. Chudzinski-Tavassi, and Daniella Oliveira
The determination of elemental concentrations for Br, Ca, Cl, Fe, K, Mg, Na, S, Sr, and Zn in blood samples from White New
Zealand rabbits was performed applying the NAA technique. Twenty whole blood samples (12 male and 8 female) collected in research
centers from Brazil (Aggeu Magalhães in Recife and Butantan Institute in São Paulo) were investigated, using the IEA-R1 nuclear
reactor at IPEN/CNEN-SP-Brazil. These data can be used as references to perform biochemistry analyses in veterinary medicine
using small quantities of whole blood (100–400 μL), simplifying the collection and the preparation of biological samples (it
is not necessary to perform the serum separation nor to use specific reactants). Furthermore, the knowledge of the biochemical
values in blood allows us to check the similarities with the blood estimations in human beings, which is an important condition
for selecting laboratory animals. Finally, these data suggest a great similarity of the inorganic tissue profile of rabbits
(White New Zealand) and humans.
Authors:J. Rao, E. Senthilvadivu, N. Seshadreesan, R. Acharya, C. Venkatasubramani, and A. Reddy
The pneumatic fast transfer system position at KAMINI reactor, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, India was characterized
by determining the epithermal neutron flux shape factor (α) and the sub-cadmium to epithermal neutron flux ratio (f) for k0-based Neutron Activation Analysis (k0-NAA). For determination of α value, bare, Cd-ratio and Cd-cover methods were employed using dual and multi monitors namely
Au, Zr and Zn. For calculation of f, Au and Zr monitors were used in the case of bare method and Au monitor was used for cadmium ratio and cadmium cover methods.
The determined α-value of PFTS indicated a hard epithermal neutron spectrum and the f value indicated about 96 % thermal neutron
component. For validation of k0-NAA method, reference materials namely NIST SRM 1646a (Estuarine Sediment) and BCS Nb-stabilized Stainless Steel (BCS/SS
No.261/1) were analyzed. The percentage errors of the determined concentration values of elements were within ±5 % with respect
to the certified values and the Z-score values at 95 % confidence level were within ±2 in most of the cases.
In this study, bromine (Br), chlorine (Cl), potassium (K) and sodium (Na) were measured in the blood of Brazilian inhabitants
from Southeast (S) and Northeast (N) regions. A reference range was established as a function of sex and considering lifestyle
factors (non-smokers and non- drinkers). For both regions lower values of K were found in females when compared to males and
lower values of Na were found in males compared to females. Increasing trends for Na and Br were observed in the Northeast
A total of 178 aerosol samples in two size fractions, PM10-2.5 (coarse) and PM2.5 (fine), were collected on nucleopore films
using a Gent stacked filter unit sampler at the Graduate School of China Nuclear Industrial Group during May 2007 to November
of 2009. Black carbon was determined by a reflectometer. A total of 16 elements, Mg, Al, S, Si, P, Cl, Ca, K, Ti, Mn, Fe,
Ni, Cu, Zn, As and Pb, were determined by Particle Induced X-ray Emission. Mg, Al, Ca, K and Mn were also determined by Neutron
Activation Analysis. Concentrations of all these elements were used to identify possible pollution sources and directions
of the airborne particulate matter by means of softwares PMF and CPF. Some extraordinary events, such as sandstorms, firework
and transboundary fire smoke were pinpointed by a combination of time series of multielement, relevant meteorological data
and softwares Wind rose, Hysplit, and Google earth.
Authors:John Bennett, Mitsuru Ebihara, Tsuyoshi Tanaka, Paul Armishaw, Raluca Iavetz, Vu Cao, Syed Hossain, Donghui Huang, Sutisna, and Nazaratul Salim
Eight neutron activation analysis research groups from seven countries have participated in a trial proficiency test under
the auspices of the Forum for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia. Three stream sediment reference materials were used in the test.
A high degree of proficiency was found in the quantification of Co and Sc and more than 20 elements were well quantified by
the majority of laboratories. The results support the use of neutron activation analysis, as practised by the participants,
for geochemical mapping. The data produced in this study may provide an opportunity to improve the characterisation of the
three reference materials.
This review describes how the original `standardless' (absolute and single-comparator) NAA-calibration methods, introduced in the mid-1960s, were stepwise upgraded with respect to their accuracy and manageability, leading to the launching of the k0-method in the mid 1970s. Next, an account is given of the achievements in the continuous development of the k0-standardization of NAA up to the present. Topics highlighted are:the k 0 -data library, the development of dedicated calibration procedures, extensions and limitations, computerization and quality control/assurance. Finally, a short outline is given of the international dissemination of the k0-methodology.
Authors:R. Acharya, A. Nair, K. Sudarshan, A. Goswami, and A. Reddy
A summary of k0-based R&D work on neutron activation analysis (NAA), internal mono standard NAA (IM-NAA) and prompt gamma-ray NAA (PGNAA)
is presented. The k0-based NAA was standardized by characterizing irradiation sites of research reactors, validated using reference materials
and applied to samples of different origin. Recently IM-NAA method was developed, validated for small and large size samples
and applied for the analysis of large size as well as non-standard geometry samples. Studies on PGNAA included characterization
of neutron beam, determinations of detection efficiency and prompt k0-factors, and analytical applications.
Authors:K. Lee, Y. Yoon, S. Jeong, Y. Chae, and K. Ko
The effects of acids on the removal of impurity from 2N grade silica have been studied using five leaching acids: 0.2 M-oxalic
acid (pH 1.5 and 2.5), c-aqua regia, 2.5%—HCl/HF, and 1%—HNO3/HF. The presence of 39 impurities in the 2N grade silica and the reference material (RM, 5N grade silica) were investigated
by neutron activation analysis (NAA), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS)
methods. Major impurities of the 2N silica were Al, K, Fe, Na, Ti, Ca, Mg and P. The fractions of the eight major impurities
were 99.2% and 90.9% of total impurity in the 2N and RM silica, respectively. Among the leaching acids, almost all of the
major impurities were removed effectively by the 2.5% HCl/HF leaching acid. All the major impurities, except for phosphorous,
as well as 21 minor and trace impurities could be determined by the NAA.