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Introduction Over the past 20 years in Peru, ayahuasca tourism has developed into a thriving business ( Grunwell, 1998 ). Several studies have assessed the reasons of use and found that this is in part due to the increasing

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ayahuasca and 7 years later Allen Ginsberg did the same; their correspondence from that period resulted in the Yagé Letters. Burroughs did not find what he was hoping for in ayahuasca or in Peru – he reported “…I had been conned by medicine men

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centers and local communities in the Iquitos region of Peru ( Sinclair, 2019 ), an area that is considered to be the Mecca of ayahuasca tourism ( Labate & Cavnar, 2014 ; Losonczy & Mesturini, 2010 , 2011 ; Suárez, 2014 ). This also served as an

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imprinting and the cognitive architecture mediating human culture . Journal of Cognition and Culture , 1 , 251 – 258 . Burger , J. , & Gochfeld , M. ( 2003 ). Parrot behavior at Rio Manu (Peru) clay lick: Temporal patterns, associations, and

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suggest that ayahuasca emerged in the 16th century from interactions among these earlier traditions. Foutia's paper examines vegetalist traditions of the Peruvian Amazon, providing an in-depth consideration of the concept of dieta. This vegetalista

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( Riba & Bouso, 2011 ; Sánchez & Bouso, 2015 ). During Peruvian ayahuasca ceremonies, spiritual leaders drink the brew, sing songs called icaros, wave chacapas (leaf fans), and blow smoke from mapacho (Peruvian tobacco) in order to create a safe

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Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Bach Xuan Tran, Giang Hai Ha, Giang Thu Vu, Chi Linh Hoang, Son Hoang Nguyen, Cuong Tat Nguyen, Carl. A. Latkin, Wilson WS Tam, Cyrus S. H. Ho, and Roger C. M. Ho

, Bangladesh, Denmark, Estonia, Peru, Romania, Thailand, Chile, Egypt, Indonesia, Iraq, Lithuania, Mexico, Tanzania, Tunisia). In both databases, the US ranked first in terms of total citations (WOS: 14,456, Scopus: 5,595) while Czech Republic (Scopus), and

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. C. Labate , & C. Cavanar (Eds.), The therapeutic use of ayahuasca (133-152) . Springer . 10.1007/978-3-642-40426-9_8 Luna , L. E. ( 1986 ). Vegetalismo: Shamanism among the mestizo population of the Peruvian Amazon . Stockholm

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.” ( Henrich et al. 2001 , p. 76). The Machiguenga of Peru ranked lowest in cooperation rates (i.e., the size of the offer), probably mirroring the lack of exchange or sharing beyond the family unit in Machiguengan daily life. In contrast, Orma

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89 109 DAVIS, H., PERUS, R. (1988) Numerical competence in animals: Definitional issues, current evidence and new research agenda. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 11 , 561

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