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Jung, C. - Krutilla, K. - Boyd, R. (1996): Incentives for Advanced Pollution Abatement Technology at the Industry Level: An Evaluation of Policy Alternatives. Journal of Environmental Economics and Management 30: 95

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Neither the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change nor the Kyoto Protocol nor other international agreements aiming at the establishment of legal and economic — and also sustainable — world development mechanisms seeking to achieve a harmony between economic growth and preservation of the environment have led to any reduction in annual increases of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions.

This is due, to a considerable extent, to the initially non-complete principles of evaluation regarding the different responsibilities of countries in connection with atmosphere pollution. The aforementioned principles are based on total emissions volumes. However, what might be seen as more justified in any estimation of permissible pollution levels is, within potential international trading of volume quotas for the rights to carbon dioxide emissions, an account of the intensity of pollution per square kilometer of surface area and the absorption potential of forests and other green plantations present in every country.

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. Huesemann , M. H. ( 2001 ): Can Pollution Problems be Effectively Solved by Environmental Science and Technology? An Analysis of Critical Limitations . Ecological Economics , 37 ( 2 ): 271 – 287

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, Inequality and Human Development . Journal of Human Development and Capabilities , 13 ( 1 ): 31 – 58 . Torras , M. – Boyce , J. K. ( 1998 ): Income, Inequality and Pollution: A

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health and the life expectancy of many Chinese citizens. They have been generating many early deaths in China, where, occasionally, air and water pollution have reached dangerous levels. China's environmental costs, especially those associated with the

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Acta Oeconomica
Authors: Ivan Vujačić, Jelica Petrović-Vujačić, Svetozar Tanasković, and Marko Miljković

a fair share of criticism regarding the weights and caps on its individual components and for its omission of important indicators such as pollution, income and gender inequality, human rights, etc. 3 http://hdr.undp.org/en/data .

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The article presents the urban sprawl phenomena in Central European capitals and in the Budapest metropolitan region, based on statistical data and empirical survey analysis. The study concentrates on territorial consumption issues, which are determined by the suburbanisation processes, the changes of city and outskirt populations, and the transformation of land use patterns. It describes the negative environmental and social impacts (air pollution, spatial and social stratification phenomena and conflicts) as well. Moreover the paper summarizes the residential requirements to offer a hypothesis concerning the possible urban sprawl in the future. Finally it discusses the excessive criticism of the urban sprawl phenomena.

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With growing evidence of natural resource depletion and environmental pollution, environmental issues became complementary to economic goals. Reduction of negative effects of human activities on the environment while enhancement of the use of alternative and renewable resources are now required together with satisfactory economic performance. The European Union made declarations to follow these goals in the Lisbon Strategy and consequently in the Strategy 2020. This paper examines to what extent these goals are fulfilled vis-à-vis EU member countries. Specifically, by performing Data Envelopment Analysis we provide an alternative way of assessing the ability of the individual EU countries to achieve these objectives. This ability is represented by relative efficiency scores of the EU members which reflect both economic and environmental goals. The paper finds that Denmark, Luxembourg, and Sweden are the most efficient countries, and also identifies the areas to be improved by the inefficient countries to reach the frontier.

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Economic growth requires well functioning transport systems. The paper deals with the problems associated with ever-increasing car use and traffic jams in Budapest. Car scarcity was the major problem that impeded car use two decades ago which has transformed into road scarcity since then. Road capacity is limited in the Hungarian capital, only the public transport can help to satisfy medium run travel demand of residents. As motorisation and car use grow congestion related time loss, petrol and pollution costs put a heavy burden on Budapest. International experience shows that restrictions on cars can mitigate congestion. In many large cities introduction of road pricing in central areas has become one of the most successful traffic management solutions. Experience in London and Stockholm confirms that citizens support car use restrictions even if they are placed on car use.

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Sustainable consumption and production

An effort to reconcile the determinants of environmental impact

Society and Economy
Authors: Stefano Pogutz and Valerio Micale

Since the early nineties, the term “sustainable consumption and production” (SCP) has defined the goal of policy-makers and scholars striving to solve the problems of sustainable development. However, despite the consistent and wide-ranging efforts of governments and business in response to the research, global environmental pollution and the degradation of ecosystems have increased over the years. The goal of this paper is twofold. First, a critical review of SCP is provided, analyzing the evolution of the concept, and examining the main causes of environmental damage linking SCP and the IPAT equation. In particular, the authors initially focus on the strategies toward sustainable production and the role played by technology. This outcome is then tested against the dynamics of consumption and the measures implemented to modify consumption at business and government level. Second, a theoretical framework is introduced that helps in stylizing current societal models on the basis of their consumption and production patterns.

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