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The knowledge about genetic diversity in the wild relatives of wheat provides useful information for breeding programs and gene pool management. In the present study, an assessment of agro-morphological diversity and molecular variability among 70 accessions of Triticum, belonging to T. boeoticum, T. urartu, T. durum and T. aestivum species, collected from different regions of Iran was made. According to phenotypic analysis, all traits except peduncle length, stem diameter and the number of seeds per spike indicated a high level of diversity among studied accessions. Also, principal component analysis identified six components that explained 87.53% of the total variation in agro-morphological traits. In molecular analysis, 15 start codon targeted (SCoT) polymorphism primers produced 166 bands, out of which, 162 (97.59%) were polymorphic. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) indicated the 63% of the variation resided among populations. The maximum value of polymorphism information content (PIC), the observed (Na) and effective (Ne) number of alleles, Nie’s gene diversity (He) and Shannon’s information index (I) was detected for T. boeoticum than the other species. The SCoT-based tree revealed three different groups corresponding to the genomic constitution in Triticum germplasm, which was in part confirmed by STRUCTURE and principal coordinate (PCoA) analyses. Our results indicated a remarkable level of genetic diversity among studied Iranian Triticum species, especially T. boeoticum, which can be of interest for future breeding and other analyses associated with future studies of the wild relatives of wheat. More importantly, our results revealed that SCoT markers could be used to accurate evaluate genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships among different Triticum species.

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Three molecular markering techniques: inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR); start codon targeted (SCoT), conserved DNA-derived polymorphism (CDDP) markers were compared for fingerprinting of 40 varieties of bread wheat. The number of scoreable and polymorphic bands produced using the ISSR, SCoT and CDDP primers for varieties was more than that of genotypes. Average polymorphism information content (PIC) for ISSR, SCoT and CDDP markers was 0.39, 0.41 and 0.34, respectively, and this revealed that three different marker types were equal for the assessment of diversity amongst genotypes. Cluster analysis for three different molecular types revealed that genotypes taken for the analysis can be divided in three and four distinct clusters. There were no significant differences among these markers in terms of the evaluation of genotypes. These results suggest that efficiency of SCoT, CDDP and ISSR markers was relatively the same in fingerprinting of genotypes but SCoT and CDDP analysis are more effective in fingerprinting of wheat genotypes. To our knowledge, this was the first detailed report of a comparison of performance among two targeted DNA region molecular markers (SCoT and CDDP) in comparision with ISSR technique on a set of samples of wheat cultivars. Overall, our results indicate that SCoT, ISSR and CDDP fingerprinting could be used to detect polymorphism for genotypes of wheat.

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. 91 283 293 Gorshkov, V.V., Bakkal, I.J. and Stavrova, N.I. 1995. The recovery of on-soil vegetation and litter in Scots pine forests of the Kola

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Over the last 30 years there has been a great deal of interest in investigating patterns of species co-occurrence across space and time, which may be shaped by interspecific competition for shared resources. A good model of co-occurrence mechanisms is developed among predatory animals along a pollution gradient, where shared resources become more limited in more contaminated areas and the energy budget for detoxification is much higher. Community disassembly by heavy metal pollution may occur when the presence of toxic elements shifts patterns of species co-occurrence from structured to random. On the other hand, limited resources on a pollution gradient should lead to higher competition between dominant species. Disassembly may entail the loss of existing co-evolved interactions among species, which has ramifications for community dynamics and the quality of the functioning of polluted ecosystems. We expect an assemblage dominated by competitive species interactions to exhibit a significant segregation of taxa, whereas one dominated by mutualistic or syntrophic interactions would exhibit an aggregation of taxa. Responses of Carabidae co-occurrence patterns and changes in body size measures to heavy metal concentrations were investigated in a zinc contamination gradient in a Scots pine forest in the vicinity of Olkusz (southern Poland), at 12 study sites. The zinc concentration in the humus layer varied between 108 mg kg-1 dw to 6150 mg kg-1 dw. We used the C-score index, between all possible species pairs in a matrix. The ground beetle assemblages from the reference sites showed a significant segregation pattern. Community disassembly occurred only among assemblages in heavily polluted sites. The average value of skewness and kurtosis were significantly higher in the highly contaminated sites, indicating the greater proportion of small-bodied species in contaminated areas. The Gini coefficient was highest in the low contaminated sites, indicating the body-size inequality of carabid assemblages was greatest in the uncontaminated areas. Our data suggest that increased pollution contributes to the extinction of sensitive forest specialists with large body size and higher competitive abilities, leading to replacement by less sensitive generalists, with smaller body size and that the co-occurrence of species on heavily polluted sites is a result of unstable interactions between species in communities.

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Regeneration potential is regarded as a kind of functional indicator, which is applied for the assessment of the habitat quality and a kind of nature conservation value. In this context “quality” does not refer to the actual state but possibilities for the future. During the MÉTA project, regeneration potential have been recorded on the scale of the quadrates (35 km 2 , 2,813 quadrates in Hungary), for each habitat of the quadrate (ignoring some featureless habitats). We have estimated three different kinds of regeneration potential: on spot, on the place of neighbours and on old-fields open water, bare rock. The categories used were: good regeneration ability, moderate, low, or there is no place for regeneration.Values of regeneration potential on spot are usually rather high. Habitats with the highest regeneration potential are the aquatic ones, shrub vegetation, halophytic vegetation, marshes, grasslands with woodland origin, sand poplar-juniper woodlands, and the poorest is the regeneration potential of the forest steppe woodlands. Lower are the values of the regeneration potential of each vegetation type on the place of the neighbours. Relatively easily spread onto the neighbouring vegetation patches the halophytic habitats, poplar-juniper woodlands, the secondary shrub vegetation, some aquatic habitats, certain riverine vegetation types and marshes. Moderate or lower is this value of this regeneration potential category for the xeric highland woodlands, rocky habitats, xeric and mesic lowland woodlands, grasslands with woodland origin and some fen vegetation types. In spite of the rather low values calculated for the whole country, the following habitats regenerate relatively well on old-fields, open water or rock surfaces, or in abandoned vineyards: the dry secondary shrub vegetation, poplar-juniper woodlands, Scots pine woodlands, halophytic habitats, some aquatic habitats and marshes. Most habitats regenerate poorly, for example, the zonal woodlands. Never or barely regenerate on old-fields: some fen habitats, the steppe oak woodlands, mesic lowland woodlands, some rock habitats, acidophilous woodlands, the zonal woodlands, the rock and sand coniferous woodlands.When comparing the values of regeneration potential on spot, on the place of the neighbours and on old-fields, most striking is the fact that the least habitats have moderate or high regeneration ability in case of the third kind of regeneration potential, and regeneration ability on adjacent vegetation patch represent a transitional state from this aspect. Some of the edaphic habitats are quite mobile (e.g. halophytic, marsh or certain fen habitats), while others migrate only rarely (rock or other fen vegetation types). Some habitats though regenerate admirably on spot, yet never invade new areas; for instance, rock vegetation, acidophilous woodlands, grasslands with woodland origin. Others has almost the same regeneration potential values on spot as on the place of the neighbours, e.g. some steppe woodlands and shrub habitats on their own clearings, or some habitats of secondary origin. Certain rock habitats, some fen and riverine vegetation types and some of the close woodlands regenerate well on spot, but almost never on old-fields. There are some habitats, which has high regeneration potential on the place of the neighbours, but has low values for the old-fields. Most of them are closed woodlands, shrub and certain fen habitats.According to our expectations, the experience gained during the MÉTA mapping will give an impulse to the study on regeneration potential.

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, R. 2000 . The electrical impedance spectroscopy of Scots pine ( Pinus sylvestris L.) shoots in relation to cold acclimation . J. Exp. Bot. 51 : 2095 – 2107 . Roy , R

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p. Marjamaa, K., Lehtonen, M., Lundell, T., Toikka, M., Saranpaa, P., Fagerstedt, Kurt, V. (2003) Developmental lignification and seasonal variation in β-glucosidase and peroxidase activity in xylem of Scots

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Danek, M. 2007. The influence of industry on Scots Pine stands in the southeastern part of the Silesia-Krakow upland (Poland) on the basis of dendrochronological analysis. Water Air Soil Pollut. 185

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Acta Biologica Hungarica
Authors: Tanja Pfeiffer, Ivna Štolfa, M. Žanić, N. Pavičić, Vera Cesar, and H. Lepeduš

fertilization on the frost hardening of secondyear Scots pine seedlings. New Forests 14 , 33–44. Repo T The effect of late summer fertilization on the frost hardening of secondyear Scots pine

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Roitto, M., Ahonen-Jonnarth, U., Lamppu, J. and Huttunen, S. (1999): Apoplastic and total peroxidase activities in Scots pine needles at subarctic polluted sites. - Eur. J. For. Path. 29 : 399-410. Apoplastic and total

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