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112 117 Anderson, J. W., Neff, J. M., Cox, B. A., Tatem, H. E. and Hightower, G. M. (1974): Characteristics of dispersions and water-soluble extracts of crude and refined oils

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, M., Maruo, N., Taga, T., Kishimoto, T., Klein, B. (1993) Increased and highly stable levels of functional soluble IL-6R in sera of patients with monoclonal gammopathy. Eur. J. Immunol. 23 , 820-824. Increased and highly

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Kerepesi, I., Toth, M., Boross, L. (1996): Water-soluble carbohydrates in dried plant. J. Agric. Food Chem. , 10, 3235-3239. Water-soluble carbohydrates in dried plant J. Agric. Food Chem

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Ringens, P. J., Hoenders, H. J., Bloemendal, H. (1982) Effect of aging on the water-soluble and water-insoluble protein in normal human lens. Exp. Eye Res. 34 , 201-207. Effect of aging on the water-soluble and water

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Aluminium as a growth limiting factor has been recognized for many years. At high concentrations, aluminium (Al) ions reduce nutrient availability in soils, harm plant cells and thus inhibit plant growth. In addition, Al concentration may be a major factor filtering species composition on acid soils in favour of Al-resistant plants. In this study we analyse species responses and turnover along soil pH and Al gradients and we attempt to interpret the results with respect to the recognised aluminium solubility patterns. Plant community and soil data collected from mesophilous and acidophilous submontane broad-leaved forests of Western Slovakia were used for this purpose. Topsoil horizons were analysed for soil reaction (pH), organic carbon and extractable total aluminium. Species responses to the Al measurements were analysed and tested using CCA and the Huisman-Olff-Fresco (HOF) model. We calculated species turnover by accumulating the first derivatives of all HOF response curves, and interpreted them with respect to the Al solubility pattern observed in the soil dataset. We also performed a bioindication experiment to test how a species assemblage indicates the aluminium gradient. In total, 81% of species shows a significant response to the soil Al gradient. We identified that a rapid retreat of many species and, in consequence, high compositional turnover (ecotone) corresponded with a discontinuity in Al solubility observed at 130 mg Al kg−1 (pH 3.8). Here, the exchangeable Al became increasingly under-saturated with respect to the equilibrium attained at higher pH. This discontinuity was also visible in the bioindication experiment, where the prediction algorithm operated better at the acidic end of the gradient. The results indicate that the studied plant assemblages respond sensitively to soil Al solubility. Changes in aluminium solubility in soils correspond with ecotone between adjacent types of vegetation.

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The vegetative buds and later on young needles as well as needles formed in spring previous year of Picea abieswere used in the experimental work. Extracted proteins were determined spectrophotometrically and the amount of dry weight was measured. The data revealed that the dry weight of needles formed in spring previous year was about three times higher than in the vegetative buds at the beginning of investigations. During the sampling period the dry weight in those needles was keeping nearly the same level (39-54%). The increase in dry weight was noticed in the young needles 5-6 weeks after vegetative buds burst. The amount of total soluble proteins in the needles formed previous year was about 140 mg/g of dry weight and it was uniformed during the investigation period. In the vegetative buds the amount of proteins was three times higher than in needles. But, the concentration starts to decrease just before bursting of the vegetative buds as well as during next 2 or 3 weeks when young shoot proliferated. After this decreasing period amount of proteins in newly formed needles briefly reached (in 2 weeks period) the level as it was in vegetative buds. In the following period the decrease of water amount as well as the protein amount in young needles was observed.

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Galectin-1 (Gal-1), a mammalian lectin induces apoptosis of T lymphocytes. Contradictory data have resulted in confusing knowledge regarding mechanism of Gal-1 induced T-cell apoptosis. In this paper we aimed to resolve this controversy by comparing cell death induced by low (1.8 μM, lowGal-1) and high (18 μM, highGal-1) concentration of soluble Gal-1. We show that lowGal-1 and highGal-1 trigger phosphatidylserine exposure, generation of rafts and mitochondrial membrane depolarization. In contrast, lowGal-1 but not highGal-1 is dependent on the presence of p56lck and ZAP70 and activates caspase cascade. The results allow the conclusion that the cell-death mechanism strictly depends on the concentration of Gal-1.

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Effect of heat stress on the synthesis of soluble heat shock proteins (HSPs) and the regrowth in seminal roots of three cultivated and three wild wheat genotypes was examined. In regrowth experiments, 2-d-old etiolated seedlings were exposed to 23 (control), 32, 35, 37 and 38 °C for 24 h, and 35 and 37 °C (24 h) followed by 50 °C (1 h). The lengths of the seminal roots generally decreased significantly at the end of 48 and 72 h recovery growth periods at 35, 37 and 38 °C temperature treatments compared with control. Genotypic variability was significant level at all temperature treatments for the seminal root length. Also, genotypic differences for the number of seminal roots were determined among the wheat cultivars and between the wild wheat species and the wheat cultivars at all temperature treatments; but genotypic differences among wild wheat species were only detected at 37®50 °C treatment. Acquired thermotolerance for the seminal root length is over 50% at 37®50 °C treatment. The genotypic variability of soluble heat shock proteins in seminal root tissues were analyzed by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE). Total number of low molecular weight (LMW) HSPs was more than intermediate- (IMW) and high- (HMW) HSPs at high temperature treatments. The most of LMW HSPs which were generally of acidic character ranged between 14.2-30.7 kDa. The genotypes had both common (43 HSP spots between at least two genotypes and 23 HSP spots between 37 and 37®50 °C) and genotype-specific (72 HSP spots) LMW HSPs.

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Separation and analysis of water-soluble proteins (WSP) are important in understanding wheat grain proteome fundamentals. However, due to their high degree of heterogeneity and complexity in the compositions, separating WSP is generally difficult and relevant methodologies are not efficiently developed yet. Capillary electrophoresis (CE) is one of the analytical methods currently used for protein separation and characterization. In the present study, a CE method is established for rapidly separating and characterizing WSP of wheat grains. The established method was tested in various applications including wheat variety and germplasm identification as well as protein synthesis and accumulation studies during different grain development stages subject to genotypic and environmental variations. As results, the characteristic CE patterns of a range of bread wheat cultivars and related species were readily identified. The synthesis and accumulation patterns of wheat WSP during developing grains as well as their stabilities in different environments were also investigated. The technical advancements present in this article appear to be useful for wheat cultivar and germplasm identification as well as genetics and breeding research.

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Damaged starch, protein and arabinoxylan (AX) content and composition have been related to water absorption (WA) in a large set of samples. We tested 20 modern bread wheat cultivars bred in Hungary, 20 old Hungarian landraces, and 17 cultivars with special biochemical/functional characteristics from all around the world, this last set for international comparison. Grain was field grown in the 2011 and 2012 harvest seasons. Alinear mathematical model has been developed to estimate WA from protein content, starch damage, AX content and the relative amount of soluble proteins with strong correlation (r2 = 0.65) between measured and estimated data. The introduction of a new parameter, related to the cultivar dependent quantitative composition of soluble proteins and determined by lab-on-a-chip (LOC) analysis, largely improved the predictability of WA. Based on the large variation among the level of AX and certain soluble protein components in wheat flour and their significant contribution toWA determination, it was concluded, that these properties could be appropriate target traits to alter them during wheat breeding programs to improve the WA of wheat flour.

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