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Portable handheld X-Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy (pXRF) is very effective and widely used technique for chemical analysis in field of archaeometry. The most advantageous feature of this technique is the possibility of analysing objects, artefacts on the spot without any sample-taking. In this study raw materials of 31 buckles from 7th century AD made of various kinds of bronze and silver alloys were analyzed to check similarities or differences between these objects via chemical analysis. Concentration ratios and distributions of alloying (Cu, Sn, Pb, Ag) and minor elements (Sb, Bi, Zn, Au) in material of bronze artifacts may have useful information suggesting important data about provenance and technology. Our recent study 27 bronze and 4 silver buckles were analyzed by pXRF and the results were used in statistical evaluation in order to get closer to provenance of raw materials and alloying technologies.

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Gearhart, N. L., Hausmann, H. J., Morgan, J. F., Norton, G. A., Tsoupas, N. 1974 Spectroscopy of 29 P via the reaction of 28 Si(p,p'γ) reaction. Phys. Rev. C10 1739-1747. Spectroscopy of 29 P via the reaction of 28 Si

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, Judit , Jacques Mehler , Janet F. Werker , Charles A. Nelson , Gergely Csibra , Sarah Lloyd-Fox , Mohinish Shukla and Richard N. Aslin . 2011 . Near-infrared spectroscopy: A report from the McDonnell Infant Methodology Consortium

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The following study deals with a looted metal sheet artefact probably originating from the Balkan region. Our main goal is to give a preliminary technological characterization of the object by the aid of four different analytical methods (macro- and microscopic observations, Neutron and X-ray Radiography, X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy). Using these different techniques together allowed us to characterize this complex metal sheet object more precisely than it would have been possible by traditional archaeological methods. According to our results, it seems that the technological characters of the artefact (e.g. the manufacturing technology, decorations, repair marks) are very similar to the metal sheet cauldrons of the Late Bronze Age and Early Iron Age.

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— G. Szenthe : Archaeometrical studies on some bronze buckles with portable (handheld) XRF spectroscopy . ActaArchHung 66/2 ( 2015 ) pp. 379 – 386 . Mithay 1995 S. Mithay : Bronz-, avar és középkori leletek Bakonytamási

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