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, J.R. (eds) 2005 . Impedance Spectroscopy. Theory, Experiment, and Applications . 2 nd ed. John Wiley & Sons . Hoboken, New Jersey, USA . Blinks , L.R. , Skow , R

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. Remote Sensing of Environment 76 81 92 Schaepman, M., K. Itten and M. Rast. 2003a. Imaging Spectroscopy as a

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Berardo, N., Pisacane, V., Battilani, P., Scandolara, A., Pietri, A., Marocco, A. 2005. Rapid detection of kernel rots and mycotoxins in maize by near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy. J. Agricul. and Food Chem

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Community Ecology
Authors: G. Ónodi, Gy. Kröel-Dulay, E. Kovács-Láng, P. Ódor, Z. Botta-Dukat, B. Lhotsky, S. Barabás, J. Garadnai, and M. Kertész

. Milton , E.J. , Schaepman , M.E. , Anderson , K. , Kneubühler , M. and Fox , N. 2009 . Progress in field spectroscopy . Remote Sens. Environ., Imaging Spectroscopy Special Issue 113 , Supplement 1: S92 – S109

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Acta Biologica Hungarica
Authors: Zoltán Kern, Miklós Kázmér, Tamás Müller, András Specziár, Alexandra Németh, and Tamás Váczi

. Gabrielli , C. , Jaouhari , R. , Joiret , S. , Maurin , G. ( 2000 ) In situ Raman spectroscopy applied to electrochemical scaling. Determination of the structure of vaterite . J. Raman Spectrosc. 31 , 497 – 501 . 14

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Using NMR spectroscopy benzene derivatives were detected in mycelia of Fusarium graminearum, a pathogen of wheat and maize. In previous studies F. graminearum was found to cause cancer to humans and benzene derivatives were detected in breath of cancer sufferers. Surprisingly, no study found benzene derivatives to be the cancerous agents in F. graminearum. In this study we detected benzene derivatives in F. graminearum and propose to study their role as cancer agents.

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Adams, R. P. (2001): Identification of essential oil components by gas chromatography/quadruple mass spectroscopy . — Allured Publishing Corporation, Carol Stream, IL, 436 pp

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We studied biomass and species composition changes of open perennial sand grassland ( Festucetum vaginatae ) as response to different levels of simulated grazing pressures. We conducted a factorial micro-plot field experiment on previously grazed grassland that has been abandoned for a long time. In a two-way factorial design of 12 treatments × 8 repeats, we performed clipping (twice a year for three years) and litter treatments (removing and adding litter once at the beginning of the experiment) to simulate components of grazing, namely the biomass removal and the reduction of the litter accumulation. We used field spectroscopy and visual canopy cover estimation to measure the effects on the amount of the above-ground green biomass and on the vegetation composition.

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The lantibiotic nisin is a ribosomally synthesised and post-translationally modified antimicrobial peptide produced by strains of Lactococcus lactis, and used as safe and natural preservative in food industry. The nisA structural gene encodes ribosomally synthesised and biologically inactive a 57 amino acid precursor peptide (NisA) which undergoes several post-translational modifications. In this study, we report the expression of precursor nisin as a His6-tagged peptide in Escherichia coli and its purification using a nickel affinity column. The technique of spliced-overlap extension PCR was used to amplify the nisA gene and the T7 promoter region of pET-15b vector. This approach was used to introduce six histidine residues at the C-terminus of prenisin. The identity of the expressed peptide was confirmed by N-terminal sequencing. The expressed His-tagged prenisin was purified under denaturing conditions, and named as prenisin-His6. The purified prenisin-His6 was analyzed by SDS-PAGE, Western blotting and mass spectroscopy. These results showed that the nisin precursor peptide can be successfully produced using an E. coli expression system.

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To detect and identify natural antioxidants in Swertia chirayita with protective effect against cerebral infarction, a screening method, using column chromatography and cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in rat, was developed. Seventeen compounds were purposefully separated and identified by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, Ultraviolet Spectrum, and Mass Spectrometry. The purified compounds were further screened by radical scavenging activity and cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats. Two compounds showed apparent radical scavenging activity and neuroprotective activity. The two compounds were identified as 1-hydroxy-2,3,4,6-tetramethoxyxanthone and 1,5,8-trihydroxy-3-methoxy xanthone, and were preliminarily considered as primary natural neuroprotective antioxidants in Swertia chirayita. These two compounds (20 mg kg−1) markedly decreased infarct size to below 5%, and also caused a significant improvement of activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) (92.90 ± 11.19 U ml−1), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) (122.58 ± 12.31 μmol mg−1) and a decrease in the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) (3.98 ± 2.00 nmol ml−1) in serum. The two compounds showed strong capability for protective effects against cerebral damages induced by ischemia-reperfusion, and the protective effect may be related to the inhibition of lipid peroxidation. The use of the screening method based on tracing separation and ischemia reperfusion would provide a new way for detection of radical-scavenging and natural neuroprotective compounds from Swertia chirayita or complex matrices.

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