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, ((3)) which represents the exergy, that is the “work potential” or “free energy” of E , according to the Second Law of Thermodynamics, and ((4)) which is a measure of the unevenness or “disorder” of the publication portfolio. Indicators E , X

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. Table 1 shows the comparative analogies up to this stage of understanding. Table 1 Comparative understanding of the bibliometrics–thermodynamics consilience in quality and quantity terms up to the definition of

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quantity C 2 / P which we noted had energy like properties and from which the p -index was derived. We shall call this the Exergy term, a sort of realizable energy, that modern thermodynamics has introduced (see below). Table 3

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and analogies from classical mechanics, electrical engineering and bibliometrics, to show that for a bibliometrics-thermodynamics consilience, a quasity term must be introduced so that mathematically and metaphysically, quasity = quantity × quality

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2,077 Thermodynamics 4,195 Reproductive biology 7,156 Critical care 2

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shortfall, namely S = E − X . Note that unlike conventional thermodynamics, there is no need to define a temperature term, and so entropy here has the same units as energy and exergy. The ratio of exergy to entropy is therefore an indicator for

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000089228200004 Thermodynamics, exergy and environmental impact 000089241400002 Short communication: solar cell efficiency tables (version 16

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.0) 9 (1.9) 13 (1.1) - Thermodynamics 1,104 1.4 9 (2.8) 10 (1

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models of how individual scientists work. It is possible that the relationship between the two approaches is similar to that between statistical physics and thermodynamics, with their microscopic versus empirical descriptions of many body systems, which

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