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., Hentze, M. (1994) Iron regulatory protein prevents binding of the 43s. Translation pre-initiation complex to ferritin and eALAs mRNA. EMBO J. 13 , 3882-3891. Iron regulatory protein prevents binding of the 43s. Translation pre

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combined analysis of actin and translation elongation factor EF-1α genes. Gene 270 , 113–120. Wöstemeyer J. Phylogeny and origin of 82 zygomycetes from all 54 genera of the Mucorales

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Acta Biologica Hungarica
Authors: Nóra Faragó, Ágnes Zvara, Z. Varga, P. Ferdinandy, and L. Puskás

289 298 Valencia-Sanchez, M. A., Liu, J., Hannon, G. J., Parker, R. (2006) Control of translation and mRNA degradation by miRNAs and siRNAs. Genes Dev. 20 , 515

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European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology
Authors: Markus Krohn, Thomas Wanek, Marie-Claude Menet, Andreas Noack, Xavier Declèves, Oliver Langer, Wolfgang Löscher, and Jens Pahnke

variants of the gene. Thus, the qPCR outcome could result from the amplification of a greatly truncated Abcb1a mRNA that does not give rise to a functional protein. We performed an in silico translation starting from the first base of exon 3 to find

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Acta Botanica Hungarica
Authors: T. O. Kondratiuk, S. Y. Kondratyuk, M. V. Khimich, T. V. Beregova, and L. I. Ostapchenko

Status of black melanin-containing yeast-like fungus Exophiala alcalophila isolated from microorganism complex of hermetic damaged in conditions of indoor high humidity in Kiev, Ukraine is proved by combined phylogenetic analysis based on sequences of the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1), the 5.8S gene and the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) nrDNA, beta-tubulin gene and translation elongation factor 1-alpha gene. Sequences of the mentioned genes of Ukrainian specimen of E. alcalophila are for the first time submitted to the GenBank.

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Habitat fragmentation increases the temporal variability in species richness and abundance of forest birds. Therefore, changes in the ecological interactions at which birds are engaged might be transient. Furthermore, despite changes in insectivory rates might have cascading effects if such changes are permanent, there are no evaluations of the persistency of changes in insectivory rates. In this study, we assessed the persistency of changes in insectivory in forest fragments, comparing the intensity of insectivory upon artificial insect larvae at three different years at a single site in central Chile. In coastal Maulino forest, the intensity of insectivory is persistently higher in forest fragments compared to continuous forest. An increase in insectivory might reduce herbivorous insect abundance which is translated into higher growth rates in seedlings at forest fragments, a factor that is changing forest dynamics. Our study suggests that the variation in bird insectivory on fragmented forest is a permanent phenomenon, which might have profound implication for the dynamics of the forest remnants.

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Bacterial antimicrobial resistance mediated by the production of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) is considered a major threat for treatment of Salmonella and Shigella infections. This study aimed to investigate antibiotic resistance patterns of Salmonella and Shigella spp. and presence of CTX-M from three teaching hospitals in Iran. In the present study, 58 clinical Shigella and 91 Salmonella isolates were recovered between 2009 and 2013 from 3 teaching hospitals in Iran. After culture and antimicrobial susceptibility testing, ESBL-positive isolates were subjected to further investigations. These included polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and DNA sequencing of bla CTX-M-15 encoding plasmid. In both genera, high sensitivity to gentamicin and amikacin, but high resistance to ampicillin, tetracycline, and trimethoprim—sulfamethoxazole, was found. Molecular investigation showed that 31.8% isolates of Salmonella spp. and 34.48% isolates of Shigella spp. were CTX-M positive and all of them were also positive for ISEcpI. Protein translation, comparing with reference sequences, showed that all CTX-M isolates belong to CTX-M-15. The present study suggests that the resistance of ESBLs-producing Salmonella and Shigella spp. in Iran hospitals is very serious. Therefore, strategies to minimize the spread of ESBL-producing isolates should be implemented.

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Cereal Research Communications
Authors: G. Chen, M.H. Zhang, X.J. Liu, J.Y. Fu, H.Y. Li, M. Hao, S.Z. Ning, Z.W. Yuan, Z.H. Yan, B.H. Wu, D.C. Liu, and L.Q. Zhang

Premature termination codons (PTCs) are an important reason for the silence of highmolecular- weight glutenin subunits in Triticum species. Although the Glu-A1y gene is generally silent in common wheat, we here isolated an expressed Glu-A1y gene containing a PTC, named 1Ay8.3, from Triticum monococcum ssp. monococcum (AmAm, 2n = 2x = 14). Despite the presence of a PTC (TAG) at base pair positions 1879–1881 in the C-terminal coding region, this did not obviously affect 1Ay8.3 expression in seeds. This was demonstrated by the fact that when the PTC TAG of 1Ay8.3 was mutated to the CAG codon, the mutant in Escherichia coli bacterial cells expressed the same subunit as in the seeds. However, in E. coli, 1Ay8.3 containing the PTC expressed a truncated protein with faster electrophoretic mobility than that in seeds, suggesting that PTC translation termination suppression probably occurs in vivo (seeds) but not in vitro (E. coli). This may represent one of only a few reports on the PTC termination suppression phenomenon in genes.

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In South Africa, the avocado (Persea americana) is an important fruit, grown primarily for export and contributing ZAR 1.75 billion to the gross domestic product of the country. As an export driven industry, optimising exportable avocado fruit volume is a primary concern. Wind induced abrasion and damage by thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), through their feeding on avocado fruit results in corky tissue development (scarring) and making the fruit unsuitable for export. The study aimed to determine the economic losses caused by these agents as well as assess different cultivar responses to scarring damage. Across cultivars, the 1.49% revenue annually due to Scirtothrips aurantii downgrading (3.86% loss factor), translating to ZAR 34.90 million (US$2.39 million). Packhouse study results showed that both thrips and wind abrasion damage accounted for 30% scarring damage, a loss factor of 13.72% and a combined revenue loss of 5.57%. The cultivar ‘Pinkerton’ showed the greatest susceptibility to scarring damage by both wind and S. aurantii whilst the cultivar ‘Carmen®-Hass’ showed a natural predisposition to higher levels of thrips damage. The presence of macadamia trees near avocado trees predisposes avocado fruit to S. aurantii damage.

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Shigella sonnei colicin 7 (Scol7) is a unique bacteriocin acting only on certain dysentery-causing bacteria, like enteroinvasive Escherichia coli, S. sonnei or S. boydii. We identified a 4.2 Md plasmid (pScol7) conferring Scol7 production to the transformants. The entire plasmid was sequenced (Gene Bank Accession number AJ318075) and the structure gene of Scol7 production (sc7a) was identified. Analyzing the sequence of the plasmid revealed extensive homology to other colicin plasmids, particularly to pColE1 but only in areas not related to the bacteriocin activity gene. The similarity of the putative promoter for sc7a to the respective sequences of other colicins suggested that the production of Scol7 is under SOS regulation. Indeed, its production could be increased eightfold by mitomycin C treatment. The molecular mass of the translated polypeptide as deduced from the nucleotide sequence of sc7a (i.e. 11.2 kDa) is in good agreement with previous estimations for its subunit, but molecular filtration experiments suggest a multimeric structure of at least 50 kDa. While current data are not sufficient to predict the mode of action of Scol7, the presence of a DTLSN pentapeptide motive suggests that it could be imported to sensitive cells via the TonB transport system.

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