Authors:J. Fan, S. Zhang, J. Lu, J. Liu, X. Zhang, Y. Ding, and Y. Chang
In order to measure 182Hf by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), a chemical procedure for separation of hafnium from tungsten has been developed
by extraction chromatography. The extraction chromatographic behavior of hafnium and tungsten has been studied using tri-n-octylamine (TOA) as the stationary phase, HCl–H2O2 mixture and NH3·H2O as the mobile phase. The effects of H2O2 concentration, column loading and column dimensions are investigated. Hf and W with microgram amounts are successfully separated
on a chromatographic column (Ø5 × 196 mm), on which Hf is hardly retained after completely eluted with 6 M HCl–1% H2O2 and W strongly adsorbed is then eluted with 3 M NH3·H2O. The decontamination factor for tungsten is 3.0 × 105 and the recovery of hafnium is better than 99% using a single column separation.
are dehydrogenation to give α-methyl styrene over Lewis acid sites and dealkylation to give benzene, ethylbenzene and propene over Brønsted acid sites [ 10 ]. In this article, we report new solid acid catalysts prepared by incorporating tungsten oxide
improve [ 18 ], [ 20 ]. According to the literature there is no research that examined the effect of using Tungsten oxide WO 3 /Syltherm 800 nanofluid as a heating fluid flow inside the receiver of PTC. So this article aimed at examining the ability of
The co-precipitation of tungsten and molybdenum by α-benzoinoxime has been studied. Comparison of relative yields for both
elements is made. Results showed coincidence and let conclude that molybdenum can be used as tracer to calculate sample to
standard relative yield for tungsten. Analyses of water samples for tungsten were made and results were also presented.
Authors:L. Tochilina, L. Kaganov, and N. Mukhamedshina
A radiochemical neutron activation technique for Mo determination in high purity tungsten, based on some specific properties of Mo and W radionuclides has been developed. Al2O3 powder has been used as a sorbent. An estimation of the Mo content was carried out via the selectively separated99mTc daughter radionuclide. Limit of detection was 10 ng g–1.
Authors:Imre Szilágyi, István Sajó, Péter Király, Gábor Tárkányi, Attila Tóth, András Szabó, Katalin Varga-Josepovits, János Madarász, and György Pokol
This article discusses the formation and structure of ammonium tungsten bronzes, (NH4)xWO3−y. As analytical tools, TG/DTA-MS, XRD, SEM, Raman, XPS, and 1H-MAS NMR were used. The well-known α-hexagonal ammonium tungsten bronze (α-HATB, ICDD 42-0452) was thermally reduced and
around 550 °C a hexagonal ammonium tungsten bronze formed, whose structure was similar to α-HATB, but the hexagonal channels
were almost completely empty; thus, this phase was called reduced hexagonal (h-) WO3. In contrast with earlier considerations, it was found that the oxidation state of W atoms influenced at least as much the
cell parameters of α-HATB and h-WO3, as the packing of the hexagonal channels. Between 600 and 650 °C reduced h-WO3 transformed into another ammonium tungsten bronze, whose structure was disputed in the literature. It was found that the
structure of this phase—called β-HATB, (NH4)0.001WO2.79—was hexagonal.
Authors:A. Nigam, R. Tripathi, M. Jangid, M. Chacharkar, and Madan Lal
Tungsten ores from Degana, Rajashthan State, India are studied using Mössbauer spectroscopy. The low grade ore exhibits two types of mineral assemblages as per chemical states of iron. The relation between ferrous/ferric ratio and tungsten concentration also supports the existence of two types of mineral assemblages. The Mössbauer spectroscopy of concentrate ore samples has shown the absence of iron. The energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy on the contrary has evidenced the presence of iron in concentrate ore samples but at lower concentration on comparison with low grade ores. These differences in behaviour in the above spectroscopic studies may be additionally due to higher attenuation of -radiations and higher atomic weight material in the ore concentrates.
A radiochemical neutron activation technique for the detemination of 19 elements in high purity tungsten has been developed. It is based on extraction with diantipyrylmethane (for tantalum and antimony), substoichiometric extraction of molybdophosphate (for phosphorus) and anion-exchange chromatography (other elements) in hydrofluoric acid medium. The results obtained and achievable limits of detection are given. The effects of self-shielding and nuclear interfering reactions are discussed.
Authors:Cheng Dao-wen, Lu Jing-bin, Yang Dong, Wang Hui-dong, and Ma Ke-yan
In boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT), the proportion of the fast neutron in the tumor (PFN) must be no more than 3%. If
a D–T neutron generator is used as a thermal neutron source in BNCT, the moderator must be optimized to decrease the PFN.
Based on the analysis of the theory, water, heavy water, polythene, graphite, lead, and tungsten were used to moderate the
fast neutrons. If the three-layer material is composed of a 4 cm thickness layer of tungsten, a 13 cm thickness layer of lead,
and a 23 cm thickness layer of heavy water, its thermalization efficiency (TE) is highest, which is increased by 191.5% than
the maximum TE moderated by single-layer materials and by 19.3% than the maximum TE moderated by double-layer materials.
An activation analytical method is described for the determination of small concentrations of Ga in tungsten. The samples
are irradiated with reactor neutrons and dissolved in a hot chamber using a remote manipulator. After the adjustment of thepH, Ga is extracted in the form of its cupferron complex in chloroform solution. The organic phase is washed and, depending
on the efficiency of the separation from tunsgten, a Ge(Li) semiconductor detector, or a NaI(Tl) scintillation counter is
used for the gamma-spectrometric evaluation.
The sensitivity of the method for a sample of 2 g was found to be 10−9 g of Ga/g of W. The determination can be carried out, and is well reproducible, with an accuracy of ±30%.