Authors:Jianan Li, Jun Zou, Guangwen Yin, Xianyong Liu, and Xun Suo
Eimerian coccidia are the most common parasitic organisms infecting chickens. The feasibility of genetic manipulation of these parasites via electroporation is proven, but this method is cumbersome and time consuming. Here we report our endeavour to develop a rapid and simple transfection method by gene gun. Tungsten particles coated with plasmid DNA encoding enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (EYFP) were used for the bombardment of Eimeria maxima unsporulated oocysts. Seven Mpa (1015 psi) helium pressure, 65 mm target distance and −0.098 Mpa (24.8″ Hg) chamber vacuum were the optimised parameters for bombardment. After sporulation, the bombarded oocysts were inoculated into chickens, and the progeny oocysts were checked under fluorescent microscope and subjected to genomic DNA extraction, which was used either for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification or plasmid rescue assay. Although the expression of EYFP was not observed, the gene was amplified from both genomic DNA and the rescued plasmid, suggesting that the plasmid DNA existed in the form of episome. These results are encouraging for the genetic processing of the sporogony stage of eimerian parasites.
Authors:András Bersényi, Erzsébet Berta, István Kádár, Róbert Glávits, Mihály Szilágyi, and Sándor Fekete
Kiersztan, A., Winiarska, K., Drozak, J., Przedlacka, M., Wegrzynowicz, M., Fraczyk, T. and Bryla, J. (2004): Differential effects of vanadium, tungsten and molybdenum on inhibition of glucose formation in renal tubules and hepatocytes of control and
Authors:Y. Sato, H. Mizuno, N. Matsumoto, and Y. Ikegaya
recordings were truncated when the resting potential increased by more than 8 mV from its value at the onset of the recording. LFPs were obtained from the CA1 stratum pyramidale using a tungsten electrode (UEWMGCSEKNNM, FHC, Bowdoin, ME, USA) coated with
Authors:P. L. Latchman, G. Gates, J. Pereira, R. Axtell R, K. Gardner, J. Schlie, Q. Yang, T. Yue, A. Morin-Viall, and R. DeMeersman
gender, MSNA was positively associated with AP and AIx in men but was inversely associated in women [ 4 ]. Although MSNA is a robust indicator of ST, this measurement requires great technical skill and involves the insertion of a tungsten microelectrode