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Journal of Psychedelic Studies
Authors: Clare Wilkins, Rafael G. dos Santos, Jordi Solá, Marc Aixalá, Pep Cura, Estefanía Moreno, Miguel Ángel Alcázar-Córcoles, Jaime E. C. Hallak, and José Carlos Bouso

Background and aims

Ibogaine is a natural alkaloid that has been used in the last decades as an adjuvant for the treatment of opiate withdrawal. Despite the beneficial results suggested by animal studies and case series, there is a lack of clinical trials to assess the safety and efficacy of ibogaine. Moreover, the majority of reports described cases of heroin-dependent individuals, with and without concomitant use of methadone, using high doses of ibogaine. Therefore, it is not clear if ibogaine at low doses could be used therapeutically in people on methadone maintenance treatments (MMT).

Methods

Case report of a female on MMT for 17 years who performed a self-treatment with several low and cumulative doses of ibogaine over a 6-week period.

Results

The patient successfully eliminated her withdrawals from methadone with ibogaine. Each administration of ibogaine attenuated the withdrawal symptoms for several hours, and reduced the tolerance to methadone until all signs of withdrawal symptoms disappeared at the end of the treatment. No serious adverse effects were observed, and at no point did the QTc measures reach clinically significant scores. Twelve months after the treatment, she was no longer on MMT.

Conclusions

To our knowledge, this is the first case report describing an ibogaine treatment using low and cumulative doses in a person on MMT. Although preliminary, this case suggests that low and cumulative doses of ibogaine may reduce withdrawal symptoms in patients undergoing MMT.

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commonly described as ‘beings,’ ‘guides,’ ‘spirits,’ ‘aliens,’ ‘helpers,’ ‘angels,’ ‘elves,’ and ‘plant spirits’ (among other terms; see Davis et al., 2020; Shanon, 2010 , p. 121–122). Entities are frequently felt to be supremely powerful, wise and loving

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; 3) Profile of mood states; 4) Loneliness Scale, University of California at Los Angels; 5) Self-Esteem Scale; 6) Pittsburgh sleep quality index; 7) Fagerstrom Test of Nicotine Dependence and 8) Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test. Since these

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village concerns, individual well-being, and the use of magic hymns to “control” all elements of nature ( Frawley, 2001 , pp. 176–177). The Atharva Veda mentions cannabis as one of the five sacred plants and asserts that a guardian angel resides in its

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angels and celestial beings; and demons and other entities of death. These predominantly anthropomorphic figures are mirrored in Luke’s ( 2011 ) summary of various studies on dimethyltryptamine (DMT) entity experiences that reported entities

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. (1929): Look Homeward Angel . New York: Scribner's. Look Homeward Angel Larsen, S. F. and László J. (1990): Cultural

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–250. Cunningham , M. R., Druen , P. B., Barbee , A. P. (1997) Angels, mentors, and friends: Trade-offs among evolutionary variables in physical appearance. In Simpson , J. A., Kenrick , D. T. (eds) Evolutionary Social Psychology . 109

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-Century-Crofts. Aesthetics and Psychobiology. Straus, E. W (1958): Aesthesiology and hallucinations. In R. May, E. Angel and H. E Ellenberger (eds): Existence: A New Dimension in Psychiatry and

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–550. Hill, D. T., Angel, J. R. (2005): Neighbourhood disorder, psychological distress, and heavy drinking. Social Science and Medicine , 61: 965–975. Hou, F., Myles, J. (2005): Neighbourhood inequality, neighbourhood affluence

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Temple Mount in Jerusalem, known to Muslims as Haram esh-Sharif (“the Noble Sanctuary”), Mohammed ascended through the seven heavens in the company of the angel Gabriel, to receive God’s instructions for the faithful. Burāq is described as being a

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