Over recent decades the uses of thermoluminescence have been expanding rapidly, as have advances in the equipment available for the determinations of this property shown by many materials. Despite this, the comparable growth of applications in the Earth and Archeological Sciences has been markedly overlooked in the mainstream thermal analysis literature, an omission this review sets out to rectify.
Authors:G. Cavallaro, D. I. Donato, G. Lazzara, and S. Milioto
rather exhaustive several techniques should be used. Py-GC/MS was applied to the study of lignin and cellulose in order to investigate decay processes in aged woods [ 3 , 4 ]. CPMAS-NMR technique was applied to archaeological samples from the eleventh
. Maria del Fiore in Florence executed by the artists Federico Zuccari and Giorgio Vasari.
Technical studies on archaeological iron objects
Technical studies performed on archaeological iron objects have shown that the
With the ever-expanding world of knowledge on cellulose-based materials that is not only of interest in the artistic and archaeological fields, it is a hard task to think of writing a comprehensive article on this
There is a growing interest in the application of scientific-physical, chemical etc. methods in archaeology. This is partly due to the fact that classical archaeology, based upon the form, style, decoration of the objects has reached its limits, to obtain new result and, the integration of other disciplines into the argumentation of archaeologists is needed. The other important reason is the development and availability of methods and equipment for non-destructive analyses, ways of gathering useful information on the chemical and mineral composition, age, and state of preservation of the objects which can be useful in their scientific appraisal. PGAA is one of the techniques eminently suited for this purpose.
Archeological specimen were examined by the radioisotope-excited X-ray method to determine their chemical composition. Individual
K and L X-rays of Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb, Mo, Ag, In, Sn, Sb, and Ba were induced by using241Am−I and241Am−Tm source—target assemblies. A lithium drifted silicone diode coupled to a 400-channel analyzer was used for detection.
No sample preparation was required and all the elements were measured simultaneously in 40 min counting time.
Authors:Y. Oura, A. Saito, K. Sueki, H. Nakahara, T. Tomizawa, T. Nishikawa, C. Yonezawa, H. Matsue, and H. Sawahata
Prompt γ-ray analysis using the internal monostandard method was applied to voluminous archaeological bronze mirrors produced
in ancient China. Sn/Cu content ratios were determined nondestructively by this method. Furthermore, Au/Cu, As/Cu, and Sb/Cu
content ratios were determined by means of measuring decay γ-rays emitted from radioactive nuclides produced within samples
via (n,γ) reactions. It is clear that the Sn/Cu content ratios in bronze mirrors produced in the Sung era is smaller than
in ones produced in between the Han and the Tung era.
In the framework of the research program Synchronization of Civilizations in the Eastern Mediterranean Region in the 2nd Millenium B.C. instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was used to determine 30 elements in pumice from archaeological excavations to reveal their specific volcanic origin. The widespread pumiceous products of several eruptions in the Aegean region were used as abrasive tools and were therefore popular trade objects. A remarkable quantity of pumice and pumiceous tephra (several km3 ) was produced by the Minoan eruption ofThera (Santorini), which is assumed to have happened between 1450 and 1650 B.C. Thus the discovery of the primary fallout of Minoan tephra in archaeologically stratified locations can be used as a relative time mark. Additionally, pumice lumps used as abrasive can serve for dating by first appearance. Essential to an identification of the primary volcanic source is the knowledge that pumices from the Aegean region can easily be distinguished by their trace element distribution patterns, as previous work has shown. The elements Al, Ba, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Dy, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Mn, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Ta, Tb, Th, Ti, U, V, Yb, Zn and Zr were determined in 16 samples of pumice lumps from excavations in Tell-el-Dab'a and Tell-el-Herr (Egypt). Two irradiation cycles and five measurement runs were applied. A reliable identification of the samples is achieved by comparing these results to the database compiled in previous studies.