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Mandeel, Q., Baker, R.: Mechanisms involved in biological control of Fusarium wilt of cucumber with strains of nonpathogenic Fusarium oxysporum . Phytopathology 81 , 462 (1991). Mechanisms involved in biological control of

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Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
Authors: L. Kredics, Zsuzsanna Antal, A. Szekeres, L. Hatvani, L. Manczinger, Cs. Vágvölgyi, and Erzsébet Nagy

) 11 23 Howell, C. R.: Mechanisms employed by Trichoderma species in the biological control of plant diseases: the history and evolution of current concepts. Plant Dis 87 , 4

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Losses due to plant diseases may be as high as 10-20% of the total worldwide food production every year, resulting in economic losses amounting to many billions of dollars and diminished food supplies. Chemical control involves the use of chemical pesticides to eradicate or reduce the populations of pathogens or to protect the plants from infection by pathogens. For some diseases chemical control is very effective, but it is often non-specific in its effects, killing beneficial organisms as well as pathogens, and it may have undesirable health, safety, and environmental risks. Biological control involves the use of one or more biological organisms to control the pathogens or diseases. Biological control is more specialized and uses specific microorganisms that attack or interfere with the pathogens. The members of the genus Trichoderma are very promising against soil-born plant parasitic fungi. These filamentous fungi are very widespread in nature, with high population densities in soils and plant litters [1]. They are saprophytic, quickly growing and easy to culture and they can produce large amounts of conidia with long lifetime.

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, 1428-1435 (1995). A tool for monitoring Trichoderma harzianum : I. Transformation with the GUS gene by protoplast technology Phytopathology 85 1428 1435 Adams, P. B.: The potential of mycoparasites for biological control of

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Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
Authors: Gábor Görcsös, László Irinyi, László Radócz, Gábor Tarcali, and Erzsébet Sándor

Cryphonectria parasitica in Italy . Mycol Res 100 , 1087 – 1093 ( 1996 ). 68. Heiniger , U. , Rigling , D. : Biological control of chestnut blight in Europe. Annu. Rev

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Pheromones have been detected in all fungal phylogenetic lineages. This came as a surprise, as the general role of pheromones in mate attraction was not envisioned for some fungi. Pheromones and pheromone receptor genes have been identified, however, in members of all true fungal lineages, and even for mycelia forming organisms of plant and amoeba lineages, like oomycetes and myxomycetes. The mating systems and genes governing the mating type are different in fungi, ranging from bipolar with two opposite mating types to tetrapolar mating systems (with four possible mating outcomes, only one of which leads to fertile sexual development) in homobasidioymcetes with more than 23,000 mating types occurring in nature. Pheromones and receptors specifically recognizing these pheromones have evolved with slightly different functions in these different systems. This review is dedicated to follow the evolution of pheromone/receptor systems from simple, biallelic bipolar systems to multiallelic, tetrapolar versions and to explain the slightly different functions the pheromone recognition and subsequent signal transduction cascades within the fungal kingdom. The biotechnological implications of a detailed understanding of mating systems for biological control and plant protection, in medicine, and in mushroom breeding are discussed.

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Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
Authors: L. Kredics, Zsuzsanna Antal, A. Szekeres, L. Manczinger, Ilona Dóczi, F. Kevei, and Elisabeth Nagy

Species belonging to the filamentous fungal genus Trichoderma are well known as potential candidates for the biological control of plant pathogenic fungi and as cellulase producers of biotechnological importance. Several data were published in the last decade also about the clinical importance of this genus, indicating that Trichoderma strains may be potential opportunistic pathogens in immunocompromised patients. However, there is a lack of information about the potential virulence factors of clinical Trichoderma strains. This study was designed to examine the extracellular proteolytic enzymes of six clinical T. longibrachiatum isolates. Supernatants from induced liquid cultures of the examined strains were screened for proteolytic enzyme activities with 11 different chromogenic p-nitroaniline substrates. The production of trypsin-like, chymotrypsin-like and chymoelastase-like protease activities cleaving N-Benzoyl-L-Phe-L-Val-L-Arg-p-nitroanilide, N-Succinyl-L-Ala-L-Ala-L-Pro-L-Phe-p-nitroanilide,and N-Succinyl-L- Ala-L-Ala-L-Pro-L-Leu-p-nitroanilide, respectively, was common among the strains examined. Separation of trypsin- and chymotrypsin-like activities by column chromatography revealed, that both systems are complex consisting of several isoenzymes. The pH-dependence of these two protease systems was also studied. Based on the results, the different isoenzymes seem to have different optimal pH values. Extracellular proteolytic enzymes may be involved in the pathogenecity of Trichoderma strains as facultative human pathogens.

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Poinar, G. O. (1979): Nematodes for Biological Control of Insects. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. Nematodes for Biological Control of Insects

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1968 1977 Haas, D., Defago, G.: Biological control of soil-borne pathogens by fluorescent Pseudomonads. Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 3 , 307–319 (2005

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11 17 Radócz, L., Szabó, I., Varga, M.: Biological control of chestnut blight /Cryphonectria parasitica (Murr.)Barr/ in Hungary. (in Hungarian) Növényvédelem 33 , 3-10 (1997

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