What is ἀργός? Whiteness? Luminosity? Or, simply a range of bright shades? Having undertaken an on-going research project on the perception of colour-sense in antiquity that explores colour’s metaphorical function(s) and its social role, in this paper I shed light on bright shades in the Iliad, mainly ἀργός, and examine their contexts to investigate how the poet employs ἀργός in developing a richer narrative, including character portrayal. How are various appearances of ἀργός composed and interconnected? How do they metaphorically affect their contexts? What do they symbolise within the narrative? Through detailed analysis, I show that ἀργός, being appropriately selected to contribute to each context as a significant indicator, plays an important role in brightening the context, effectively and picturesquely.
Analysis of Kurtágs's compositional techniques centred on ways of generating and developing musical figures, whose immediate perceptibility can be set in a contemporary aestethics of expression. Figures are shaped from basic and elementary cells (mostly second- or third- intervallic cells), a matter still chaotic and formless, which through subsequent harmonic fillings and widenings become little by little animated; this process of musical generation alludes to those of spontaneous generation and transformation of the natural world. Kurtág's formal structures are conceived as brief, almost aphoristic ones, fashioned by the inner characters of figures; their leaps are mainly constituted by ratios of “golden section”, that is nature's inner geometry. Strong, bright- coloured gestures are the musical culmination of these “figural” and living developments. Exemplifications of some figures' articulation, as well as of their generation and development processes from elementary cells follow, through selected passages from op. 7, 17, 24, 27. This charming spectacle of nature in Kurtág's music is further innervated by a deep sense of history: Bach's polyphony, the italian Baroque aria, Beethoven's instrumental recitative, Bartók's harmony, the dodecaphonic techniques, as tutelary deity of such a personal expressive world.
György (Đuro) Arnold (1781-1848) the composer, teacher, conductor, lexicographer and founder of the first music school in Subotica, was the regens chori of the Subotica's Sv. Terezija church (1800-48). He was a prolific composer, writing in a variety of genres, from compositions for the church of Sv. Terezija, choral and chamber works to operas, melodramas, songs, overtures, and verbunkos (the complete list of his works is included in the appendix). Arnold's style was influenced by Viennese Classical church music and the emerging Hungarian national style. In his early sacred pieces, he used quotations from popular operas, but in later compositions he was closer to Haydn, and the Te Deum Solenne dedicated to the Zagreb Bishop Aleksandar Alagović shows possible influence of early Beethoven. In many aspects, Arnold was a composer on the periphery. He liked large ensembles which could impress audiences with the brightness of the orchestral sound altough, as far as we know, he never attempted to build a large symphonic form which would match the richness of such a sound. He ususally set the text in short sentences, quickly exhausting its possibilities, undermining the expectations raised by the large-scale gradations which open his compositions. In 1819, Arnold published Pismenik, a collections of texts (without tunes) of Croatian Roman Catholic hymns collected in Bačka (western Vojvodina); the preface to Pismenik and its complete table of contents are reprinted in an appendix. In 1839-40, he completed the hymnal Valóságos egyházi kántori fontos énekeskönyv with 186 church compositions intended for Hungarian and Transylvanian chuch musicians, which remained unpublished. In 1826, Arnold began working on the Historisch-musikalisch bibliographisches Tonkünstler Lexikon, which expanded to four manuscript volumes in length, but remained unpublished and seems to be lost today.
brought about such odd and diverse changes in Vienna that it can be most aptly compared to a wuthering eclipse happening suddenly on a bright day and passing soon. For as on a cheerful-bright day a wuthering eclipse makes all pure-eyed creatures (happily
), written for the Empress Marie Therese, with its C-major brightness, trumpets and timpani, recalls the aura of the old Habsburg rituals and processions, so familiar for Haydn. For all this, the profile and the basic structure of Vienna’s musical life went
right hand. Only the evil force under the hooves is different. St. George kills the serpent (dragon) and St. Sisynnios kills the female witch. Visual representations, though rare, are always solemn and bright. 7 They illustrate the victory of good over
Generation of ‘Bright Winds’: A Generation Denied . In: Berghoff , Hartmut , Jensen , Uffa , Lubinski , Christina , and Weisbrod , Bernd (eds.) History by Generations: Generational Dynamics in Modern History . Göttingen : Wallstein Verlag , 239
disjuncture between the bright, colourful imagery and the dramatic irony of the lyrics is weakened in the target version, which makes the irony of Olaf the snowman not knowing that snow melts in summer less sharp. The verbal side is arguably most different in
traditions separate from those of the ruge : the Swabians proceed to the Roman Catholic church along the main road, dressed in Swabian traditional costume, the girls wearing brightly coloured dresses with aprons and fringed scarves and carrying an apple with